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中国精品科技期刊2020

蒸制过程中鲣鱼背肉的品质及风味变化

戴振庭 周惠敏 殷泽生 周瑜 陈舜胜

戴振庭,周惠敏,殷泽生,等. 蒸制过程中鲣鱼背肉的品质及风味变化[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(23):301−309. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030259
引用本文: 戴振庭,周惠敏,殷泽生,等. 蒸制过程中鲣鱼背肉的品质及风味变化[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(23):301−309. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030259
DAI Zhenting, ZHOU Huimin, YIN Zesheng, et al. Quality and Flavor Changes of Bonito Back Meat during Steaming[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(23): 301−309. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030259
Citation: DAI Zhenting, ZHOU Huimin, YIN Zesheng, et al. Quality and Flavor Changes of Bonito Back Meat during Steaming[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(23): 301−309. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030259

蒸制过程中鲣鱼背肉的品质及风味变化

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030259
详细信息
    作者简介:

    戴振庭(1998−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:水产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:1716534284@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    陈舜胜(1956−),男,硕士,教授,研究方向:水产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:sschen@shou.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S98

Quality and Flavor Changes of Bonito Back Meat during Steaming

  • 摘要: 以鲣鱼的背部肌肉为原料,通过测定其质量损失率、pH、质构特性、肌原纤维蛋白、肌浆蛋白含量、水分分布、游离氨基酸含量、挥发性风味物质以及人工感官评定分析蒸制过程中的品质和风味的变化。结果表明,蒸制过程中的质量损失率在0~6 min迅速上升后趋于稳定、pH整体呈上升趋势,硬度显示两个波峰,在蒸制8 min时的弹性达到2.20 mm,肌原纤维蛋白、肌浆蛋白含量在0~6 min内显著下降(P<0.05)后趋于稳定,不易流动水含量不断下降,自由水含量先升高后降低。呈鲜甜味的谷氨酸含量、游离氨基酸总量随蒸制时间的变化趋势相同,整体呈现先升高后降低的趋势,游离氨基酸总量在蒸制6 min和8 min时总量分别为3369.03 mg/100 g、3438.76 mg/100 g。GC-MS分析结果显示,蒸制过程中呈腥味的庚醛和壬醛的相对含量逐渐降低,且在蒸制8 min的相对含量仅为1.14%和1.69%,去腥效果最好。人工感官分析也表明蒸制8 min 时的整体评分最佳。因此选用蒸制6~8 min的条件获取到的鲣鱼鱼块的品质及风味最佳。
  • 图  1  蒸制时间与鲣鱼鱼块质量损失率及pH的关系

    Figure  1.  Relationship between cooking time and the mass loss rate and pH of bonito pieces

    注:同一指标不同的小写字母代表显著性差异(P<0.05),图2图3图5同。

    图  2  蒸制时间与鲣鱼鱼块质构的关系

    Figure  2.  Relationship between cooking time and texture of bonito pieces

    图  3  蒸制时间与鲣鱼鱼块肌原纤维蛋白和肌浆蛋白含量的关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship between cooking time and content of sarcoplasmic and myogenic protein in bonito pieces

    图  4  蒸制时间对鲣鱼鱼肉弛豫时间的影响

    Figure  4.  Effects of cooking time on relaxation time of bonito pieces

    图  5  不同蒸制时间对鲣鱼鱼肉感官品质的影响

    Figure  5.  Effects of different steaming time on sensory quality of bonito pieces

    表  1  感官评价标准

    Table  1.   Sensory evaluation criteria

    评价项目评分基准评分(分)
    外观色泽均匀,有光泽4
    色泽较均匀,表明有光泽3
    色泽不均匀,表明略有光泽2
    色泽不均匀,无光泽1
    气味鲜味浓,无腥味4
    鲜味浓,略有腥味3
    鲜味较浓,略有腥味2
    鲜味弱,有腥味1
    形态弹性好,外形保持完整4
    弹性较好,外型较完整3
    有弹性,外型较差2
    无弹性,外型松散1
    口感口感好,多汁,肉质细嫩4
    口感较好,汁液较多,肉质嫩3
    口感较好,稍干,肉质稍有柴感2
    肉质干且柴感重1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同蒸制时间下鲣鱼鱼肉的游离氨基酸含量的变化(干重,mg/100 g)

    Table  2.   Variation of free amino acid content of bonito under different cooking time (dry weight, mg/100 g)

    种类蒸制时间(min)阈值[26]
    04681012
    天冬氨酸Asp*3.51±0.03a3.18±0.41a3.51±0.07a3.32±0.12a3.09±0.11a2.84±0.09a100
    苏氨酸Thr*17.74±0.08b15.14±0.25a20.41±0.44d18.73±0.38c19.92±0.49d18.77±0.17c260
    丝氨酸Ser*13.86±0.04a16.09±0.22b21.10±0.40d16.79±0.5b14.48±0.62a19.94±0.20c150
    谷氨酸Glu*8.11±0.24a20.33±0.09b23.43±0.54c44.69±0.39e22.79±0.61c40.42±0.55d30
    甘氨酸Gly*38.50±0.11d23.06±0.68a31.95±0.53b35.68±0.82c30.83±0.48b31.43±0.31b130
    丙氨酸Ala*36.62±0.08a35.81±0.82a48.53±0.95c54.28±0.33d43.77±0.43b47.51±0.37c60
    半胱氨酸Cys3.34±0.03a3.15±0.09a4.55±0.16b5.94±0.32c4.54±0.06b4.75±0.05bND
    缬氨酸Val22.15±0.03a28.52±0.39b37.53±1.14d39.49±0.41e27.91±0.23b33.17±0.14c40
    蛋氨酸Met9.34±0.20a23.99±0.74b31.51±1.41d34.81±0.39e22.89±0.26b27.02±0.46c30
    异亮氨酸Ile9.09±0.06a12.04±0.31b16.01±0.34c22.9±0.21d9.32±0.07a13.23±0.08b90
    亮氨酸Leu17.93±0.07a22.21±0.45c29.10±0.71e20.42±0.43b21.09±0.07c24.87±0.13d190
    酪氨酸Tyr15.53±4.50a21.94±1.17c30.36±0.67f27.5±0.78e17.48±0.82b24.95±0.31dND
    苯丙氨酸Phe24.38±6.22a28.29±5.43b35.81±0.68d43±3.62e25.78±2.31a31.43±0.21c90
    赖氨酸Lys696.28±5.14c473.34±7.63a665.02±1.14c758.38±5.70d673.25±2.39c526.69±6.87b50
    组氨酸His1975.01±8.24a1987.21±11.10b2292.31±0.43d2304.59±8.30e2188.46±2.76b2231.54±5.30c20
    精氨酸Arg0.99±0.08a2.95±0.08b3.01±0.03c3.06±0.09c0.94±0.04a3.22±0.11d50
    脯氨酸Pro*8.38±0.47e2.28±0.31a3.16±0.38b5.18±0.41d4.8±0.74d3.79±0.13c300
    总量1963.83±10.73a2777.72±13.28b3369.03±4.31d3438.76±11.11e3131.34±7.69c3151.63±9.54c
    注:同行中不同字母间存在显著性差异(P<0.05);*代表鲜甜味氨基酸;▲代表苦味氨基酸;ND表示未查到,表3表4同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同蒸制时间下鲣鱼鱼肉的挥发性风味物质的变化(%)

    Table  3.   Changes of volatile flavor substances of bonito under different cooking time (%)

    化合物名称蒸制时间(min)
    04681012
    醛类
    己醛5.22±0.03a21.00±0.08c22.31±0.09c25.34±0.11d22.09±0.06c17.28±0.08b
    庚醛12.43±0.04c2.90±0.08b2.69±0.13b1.14±0.09a1.55±0.09a2.14±0.03b
    壬醛13.60±0.07d5.63±0.05c3.22±0.08b1.69±0.02a1.90±0.09a2.63±0.03b
    癸醛0.88±0.08NDNDNDNDND
    (Z)-7-十六碳烯醛0.95±0.09c0.15±0.09aNDND0.58±0.02bND
    十一醛NDND10.64±0.04d4.72±0.09a7.62±0.07b8.70±0.03c
    十六醛NDNDNDND2.11±0.09a21.90±0.13b
    2,4-戊二烯醛9.42±0.05e2.50±0.03b2.04±0.08ab4.72±0.09c5.88±0.13d1.48±0.28a
    反-2-辛烯醛1.11±0.05c1.26±0.09d0.22±0.08a0.88±0.02b1.25±0.07d1.27±0.03d
    (Z)-癸-2-烯醛ND0.99±0.03aND1.12±0.0aNDND
    十四醛ND4.22±0.03d2.61±0.08b2.69±0.9b3.64±0.11c1.14±0.13a
    (E,E)-2,4庚二烯醛5.11±0.07c2.36±0.20a3.32±0.21b5.20±0.08c6.74±0.19d5.21±0.04c
    4-异丙烯基环己-1-烯-1-醛NDND2.45±0.03NDNDND
    (Z)-13-十八碳烯醛0.59±0.01bNDNDNDND0.44±0.04a
    总量49.31±0.32c41.01±0.54a49.50±0.76c47.49±1.30b53.36±2.01d62.19±2.67e
    酮类
    3,3-二甲基-2-丁酮0.51±0.04NDNDNDNDND
    2,3-辛二酮0.69±0.01NDNDNDNDND
    3-辛酮7.74±0.08e5.89±0.09d3.11±0.19c0.95±0.09ab1.49±0.07b0.44±0.07a
    2-壬酮1.17±0.03NDNDNDNDND
    总量10.12±0.26e5.89±0.21d3.11±0.19c0.95±0.08ab1.49±0.07b0.44±0.07a
    醇类
    1,5-己二烯醇2.49±0.12d1.31±0.09c2.12±0.03d0.81±0.01b1.01±0.02c0.23±0.01a
    反-4-甲基环己醇1.56±0.02b0.72±0.01a0.75±0.01a0.72±0.01a0.74±0.02a0.85±0.02a
    2-丁基-1-辛醇NDNDND1.34±0.04NDND
    1-辛烯-3-醇5.08±0.01c1.41±0.05b1.06±0.04b0.59±0.01a0.56±0.01a0.33±0.01a
    2-癸烯-1-醇ND1.60±0.08bND1.00±0.11aNDND
    3-苯基-2-丁醇ND0.36±0.01NDNDNDND
    顺-2-壬烯-1-醇ND2.43±0.02c1.46±0.04b0.52±0.02aNDND
    (E)-7-十四烯醇ND1.68±0.05bND0.59±0.01aNDND
    5-甲基-1,5-二烯-3-醇ND0.73±0.01NDNDNDND
    3,7,11-三甲基-2,6,10-十二烷三烯-1-醇0.83±0.06bND0.14±0.01aNDNDND
    5,7-十二烷二炔-1,12-二醇NDND1.46±0.01NDNDND
    β-桉叶醇ND0.73±0.03ab0.63±0.01a0.83±0.01bND0.99±0.01c
    雪松醇1.50±0.03a2.85±0.06b3.59±0.05c4.42±0.05d3.49±0.07c2.72±0.09b
    2-十六醇NDNDND0.98±0.09a1.05±0.05aND
    总量11.47±0.67c13.84±0.79d11.22±0.19c11.82±0.99c6.84±0.69b5.13±0.62a
    烷烃类
    十四烷1.55±0.04NDNDNDNDND
    十五烷11.17±0.6bNDND0.65±0.01aNDND
    十七烷3.85±0.08NDNDNDNDND
    二十七烷1.22±0.03b0.85±0.03aNDNDNDND
    十九烷ND0.82±0.01a1.00±0.03b1.30±0.03c2.28±0.09d0.95±0.02b
    2,6,10-三甲基十四烷1.33±0.05bNDNDND1.92±0.07c0.71±0.02a
    d-柠檬烯ND8.88±0.18b8.53±0.29b8.51±0.52bND0.74±0.01a
    2,7-二甲基辛烷ND4.44±0.08c4.55±0.21c3.36±0.38b3.84±0.06b2.19±0.08a
    总量19.12±0.11e14.99±0.21d14.07±0.55c13.83±0.89c7.04±19b4.58±0.10a
    酯类
    1-甲基-4-(1-甲基乙烯基)环己醇乙酸酯1.11±0.09aNDNDND3.43±0.11b7.60±0.16c
    (1-羟基-2,4,4-三甲基戊-3-基) 2-甲基丙酸酯1.61±0.03c1.31±0.08b1.21±0.09aNDNDND
    2-乙基-3-羟基己基2-甲基丙酸酯1.27±0.01NDNDNDNDND
    异酞酸烷基酯2.91±0.01NDNDNDNDND
    邻苯二甲酸酯烷基酯0.83±0.07c0.66±0.01b0.24±0.02a0.79±0.01cND1.32±0.05d
    1,2-甲酸二异辛酯1.60±0.03aNDND8.58±0.28cND4.65±0.18b
    2,2,4-三甲基-1,3-戊二醇二异丁酸酯ND7.19±0.87d6.70±0.3c7.20±0.15d6.40±0.82b5.59±0.15a
    邻苯二甲酸丁酯ND5.27±0.15a5.33±0.16aND5.88±0.29bND
    邻苯二甲酸二异辛酯ND2.37±0.06d2.43±0.06d1.19±0.72a1.74±0.2c1.53±0.09b
    己二酸二(2-乙基己)酯ND0.78±0.06NDNDNDND
    2-丙烯酸十二烷基酯ND0.71±0.04NDNDNDND
    乙酸十五烷基酯NDNDNDND0.70±0.06ND
    总量9.33±0.21a18.3±0.38d15.9±0.46b17.73±0.30c18.14±1.09d20.69±0.36e
    芳香类
    对二甲苯0.40±0.01a1.65±0.08e1.93±0.10f0.67±0.06b1.29±0.07d0.90±0.01c
    2,6-二叔丁基对甲酚NDND1.28±0.05b1.69±0.06c1.19±0.09a1.12±0.03a
    总量0.40±0.01a1.65±0.08b3.21±0.15e2.36±0.13d2.48±0.10d2.02±0.04c
    其他
    丁酸,2-[乙酰基[(2-羰基-1-吡咯烷基)甲基]氨基]0.27±0.01aNDND0.73±0.01bNDND
    甲氧基苯肟ND0.42±0.01b0.56±0.01c0.31±0.28a1.26±0.03e1.04±0.09d
    1,2-环氧十六烷ND2.00±0.06d1.28±0.03a1.92±0.06d1.76±0.05c1.56±0.05b
    2-乙基夫喃ND1.07±0.07a1.14±0.05a1.11±0.07a1.73±0.09c1.30±0.10b
    甲氧基乙酸NDNDND1.07±0.07a1.90±0.04b1.05±0.01a
    羟胺澳癸NDNDND0.68±0.09NDND
    总量0.27±0.01a3.49±0.10b2.99±0.09b5.83±0.38d6.65±0.18e4.95±0.03c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同蒸制时间鲣鱼鱼肉挥发性风味成分的相对气味活度值及其气味特征

    Table  4.   Relative odor activity and odor characteristics of volatile flavor components of bonito under different steaming time

    种类感觉阈值[26]
    (μg/kg)
    气味特征[26]蒸制时间(min)
    04681012
    己醛20草香1.9218.6534.6275.0758.1232.81
    庚醛3鱼腥味30.4817.1527.8222.6127.1227.09
    壬醛1蜡香、青草香100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
    癸醛1柑桔香气6.45NDNDNDNDND
    十一醛5甜橙玫瑰样花香NDND66.0455.8980.22ND
    2,4-戊二烯醛10肉汤香味10.614.436.3527.9530.945.63
    反-2-辛烯醛3脂肪和肉类香气2.737.452.2517.3521.8716.06
    (Z)-癸-2-烯醛0.3黄瓜、甜瓜的气味ND58.68NDNDNDND
    十四醛14奶油香、鱼香ND5.365.7811.4013.683.09
    2,3-辛二酮252甜的奶油香0.02NDNDNDNDND
    3-辛酮28蜡香、蔬菜香2.033.743.452.002.800.60
    2-壬酮5青香及奶油香1.72NDNDNDNDND
    1-辛烯-3-醇1蘑菇香、泥土香37.3925.0732.9935.1729.3912.64
    d-柠檬烯10柠檬香气ND15.7726.4750.41ND2.81
    对二甲苯490ND0.010.060.120.080.140.07
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-10-21
  • 刊出日期:  2022-11-23

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