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Research Progress of Preparation and Application of Probiotic Microencapsulation in Food
GAO xiangxin, CHEN yongfu, Wusigale
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090256
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Probiotics are widely used in the food field because they are beneficial to human health, while they are susceptible to adverse environmental factors such as temperature, oxygen, humidity, pressure, stomach acid and bile salts. In order to maintain high survival rate of probiotics during processing, storage and digestion, different microencapsulation technologies have been used for encapsulation and protection of probiotics. Probiotic microencapsulation technology can improve the resistance of probiotics to adverse environment by creating a physical barrier, and reduce the damage of probiotics in the protective matrix, so that they can reach the target site at full potency. The review article summarizes the source, type and efficacy of probiotics, and mainly summarizes the fundamental principles, advantages and disadvantages of the common probiotic microencapsulation technologies, including extrusion, emulsification, spray drying, freeze drying, spray chilling, complex coacervation, electrospinning, electrospraying and impinging aerosols. Furthermore, an overview of the application advantages and possibilities of probiotic microencapsulation technologies in dairy products, meat products, non-milk beverages and baked products are discussed. Although many studies in vitro digestion, there are still some limitations. As for the existing problems, it is necessary to expand the microencapsulation technologies, carry out in vivo experiments, and establish a systematic database to meet the industrial production needs of probiotic food. It provides theoretical reference for developing new probiotic food.
Evaluation of Uncertainty in Determination of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fresh Tea Leaves by Gas Chromatography
LIU Tengfei, ZHANG Li, YANG Daifeng, ZHU Song, ZHOU Fengjie
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040006
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Aim to evaluate the uncertain factors which may influence the accuracy of detection of pesticide residues in fresh tea leaves, a case study of dichlorvos, dimethoate, malathion and fenitrothion residues in fresh tea leaves was carried out using gas chromatography with external standard method. According to the relevant standard and protocol, a mathematical model has been studied. The uncertainties created by the entire experimental process were evaluated systematically. Three A-type evaluation components, including reproducibility of determination, fitness of standard curve and recovery rate, and four B-type evaluation components, including preparation of standard solution, sample weighing and pretreatment, and the measurement of instrument were investigated. The results revealed that the expanded uncertainty of measured values of dichlorvos, dimethoate, malathion and fenitrothion in the spiked tea leaves were 0.021, 0.073, 0.036 and 0.023 mg/kg (k=2, confidence interval P=95%), while the theoretical content were 0.096, 0.39, 0.19 and 0.19 mg/kg, respectively. Preparation of standard solution and fitness of standard curve contributed to the major effect on uncertainty, which should be paid more attention for future determination. Our study provides a reference for the accuracy assessment of method in detection of four organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh tea leaves.
Optimization of Brewing Technology of Hovenia acerba-sorghum Co-fermented Distilled Liquor and Its Characteristic Flavor Substances and Antioxidant Activity in Vitro
ZHAO Minhui, YI Yuan, ZHANG Qiang, CHEN Jing, ZUO Yong
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030118
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A new type of distilled liquor was brewed using Hovenia acerba and sorghum as raw materials, medium-temperature Daqu as starter. Fermentation parameters were optimized by single factors experiment and orthogonal test. The flavor components were detected and analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and odor activity threshold (OAV). And the antioxidant capacity was evaluated. The results showed that the optimal preparation conditions were determined as follows: Addition of Hovenia acerba was 20% and Daqu was 15%, and fermentation time was 35 d. Under the optimized conditions, the sensory score of 93.91, the product yield of 40.21%. A total of 48 flavor substances were identified in the liquor prepared under the optimized conditions, of which 20 were OAV>1. Ethyl butyrate, ethyl octanate, ethyl hexanoate ethyl and guaiacol were considered as the characteristic flavor substances of the Hovenia acerba-sorghum co-fermented distilled liquor. Compared with pure sorghum distilled liquor, phenylethanol, 2,3-butanadiol, 9-ethyl decanolate, 10-bromodecanoic acid ethyl ester and other volatile components were special in the Hovenia acerba-sorghum co-fermented distilled liquor. In addition, the total phenol content, DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging ability, and total reducing power of the Hovenia acerba-sorghum co-fermented distilled liquor were higher than the pure sorghum distilled liquor. This study provides a scientific reference for the industrial production of liquor and a new idea for the development of new health distilled spirits.
Changes in Key Aroma Compounds of ‘Guire 82’ Mangoes with Different Ripening Stages before and after Processing into Dehydrated Mangoes
TAN Yewei, LIU Shuaimin, FENG Chunmei, LI Jianqiang, JIANG Zongbo, WANG Linliang, LI Xinrong
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030408
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In this research, the compositional changes of key aroma compounds of ‘Guire No. 82’ mangoes before and after dehydration at green, semi-ripe and fully ripe stages were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the key aroma compounds of fresh fruit in ‘Guire No. 82’, such as β-pinene, 2-carene, β-myrcene, 3-hexene-1-alcohol, etc., possessed the highest content in the green ripening stage, which also suffer a great loss accompanying with the processing, and even not at all for decyl aldehyde. Meanwhile, the content of β-pinene and β-myrcene gradually decreased with the mango ripening, but the content of ethyl caproate and ethyl butyrate increased and reached the middle value at the half-ripe stage, and its content remained the highest after processing. Additionally, the content of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butyrate and phenethyl alcohol reached the peak value at the full ripening stage, however, the loss of its content after processing was also very obvious, especially for ethyl hexanoate. O-cymene was only detected at the half-ripening stage, which remained after processing. The content of β-ionone was the highest in the half-ripening stage and remained at the highest level after processing. From the analysis of main aroma components, the 14 main aroma components of half-ripe mango did not disappear after processing, and the retention rate of main aroma components (original fruit flavor) reached 100%. Therefore, compared with other ripening stages, the key aroma compounds of mangoes processed into original dried fruit at the half-ripening stage of ‘Guire No. 82’ were better than those of the other two stages.
Determination of 26 Kinds of Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Wheat Germ by Gas Chromatography Method Simultaneously
LI Tingting, WANG Rong, REN Xingquan, LIU Pan, CHEN Kun, HUO Wenqing, ZENG Wenjin
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030290
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A gas chromatography method was established to simultaneously detect 26 kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residuesin wheat germ samples, such as dichlorvos, ethoprophos, and cadusafos. By optimizing the pretreating procedures of samples and test conditions of gas chromatography, the target organophosphorus pesticide residues were separated by DB-17 capillary column and temperature programming, and corresponding amounts were detected using flame photometric detector (FPD). The results showed that the concentrations of all organophosphorus pesticide residues were linearly related to their peak areas with correlation coefficients of over 0.999 in the concentration 0.010~1.0 μg/mL, and the minimum quantitative concentrations of all organophosphorus pesticide residues were between 0.005 mg/kg and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of spiked samples at 3 levels ranged from 80.61% to 116.19% with relative standard deviations between 0.62%~6.83%. This method had been successfully applied in qualitative screening and quantitative detection of 26 kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residues in wheat germ samples. Alathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl and fenitrothion were detected in actual samples, and the contents of positive organophosphorus pesticides were 0.074±0.005, 0.062±0.004, 0.043±0.002 mg/kg.
Determination of 16 Phenolic Compounds in Prunella vulgaris and Analysis Their Correlation with Antioxidant Activity
LUO Min, HE Ting, GONG Lei, CHEN Rongxiang
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030172
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Objective: To determine the content of 16 phenolic compounds in 24 batches of Prunella vulgaris by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and to investigate the correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by grey relational analysis (GRA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. Methods: The sample was extracted with 80% methanol by the ultrasonic extraction. A method for the determination of 16 phenolic compounds in Prunella vulgaris was established by LC-MS/MS. The Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was selected as the stationary phase. The gradient elution was performed with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile at the flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The eluted compounds were detected in the negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring technology. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, ABTS free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Results: There were significant linear relationship of 16 phenolic compounds in the range of their concentration with the correlation coefficient (r) greater than 0.99. The precision, repeatability, stability and recovery were good. In vitro antioxidant experiments showed that Prunella vulgaris had strong ability to scavenge ABTS, DPPH free radicals and ferric reduction. The results of GRA and PLSR indicated that rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin were the primary compounds contributing to the antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: A LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of 16 phenolic compounds in Prunella vulgaris was established and the primary antioxidant active components were further investigated by correlation analysis, so as to provide scientific basis for quality control, development and utilization of Prunella vulgaris.
Rapid Identification of American Ginseng Originated from Varied Places Based on Heracles Ultra-fast Gas Phase Electronic Nose
ZHA Shenghua, WANG Junliang, ZHOU Shuyang, JIANG Shuihong, ZHANG Hong
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020218
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Objective: Heracles ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose was applied to establish a quick and effective differentiation method for American ginseng originated from varied places on the basis of different smell. Method: Heracles ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose was used to analyze the smell of American ginseng originated from varied places and acquired chromatographic information of smell of sample American ginseng. The chromatographic peaks with strong separation intensity and discrimination ability were screened. Based on Kovats retention index and Arochembase database, the main odorant compounds of American ginseng from different producing areas were characterized. According to the relative odor activity value (ROAV), the contribution degree of the main difference compounds to the odor of American ginseng was analyzed by the odor threshold and relative content of the main difference compounds. PCA and DFA stoichiometry models were used for analysis. Result: Thirteen major differential compounds including propanaldehyde, n-valyl aldehyde and n-hexanal were screened out from ginseng of different origin by Heracles ultra-fast gas-phase electronic nose. Through the ROAV analysis of the main difference compounds, it was determined that n-hexal, propionic aldehyde, dodecal, n-valyl aldehyde, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, methyl butyrate, 2-heptanol were the odor substances that contributed more to the odor of American ginseng. Among them, n-hexal was the key odor compounds that contributed the most to the odor of American ginseng. The contents of n-hexal, n-valental, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine and 2-heptanol were the highest in American ginseng from American . The contents of propionic aldehyde and methyl butyrate were the highest in American ginseng from Canadian. The content of dodecal was the highest in American ginseng from Jilin . PCA and DFA stoichiometric models were established. The recognition index of PCA model was 88. The cumulative discrimination index of DFA model was 100%. It was indicated that both PCA and DFA models could distinguish the odors of American ginseng from different producing areas, which could identify and analyze the odors of American ginseng samples. Conclusion: Heracles ultra-fast gas-phase electronic nose can quickly and effectively distinguish ginseng from different origin. This provides a new scientific basis for tracing the origin of ginseng.
Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Zaobaijian Black Tea Harvested in Different Seasons Based on HS-SPME-GC-MS and PLS-DA
PAN Wanshu, HU Xianqiang, ZHANG Zhengyi, LÜ Chen, WANG Song
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020206
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By using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), the volatile flavor compounds were determined for 15 Zaobaijian black tea samples harvested in spring, summer and autumn in Junlian, Sichuan Province. Subsequently, a discriminant model partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the dendroid heat map was drawn to determine the distribution of key aroma components from different harvest seasons. Results showed that the alcohol content (113.05 μg/g) and esters (34.91 μg/g) in the spring samples were significantly higher than those from the summer and autumn samples, while the aldehydes (23.86 μg/g) were significantly lower than those in the summer and autumn samples. The established PLS-DA model could distinguish between tea samples harvested in spring and those harvested in summer and autumn. Moreover, the heat map cluster analysis showed that hyacinthin, nerol and (Z)-geraniol were the key aroma component that distinguished the spring tea samples from the summer and autumn tea samples. Cis-linalool oxide and trans-linalool oxide (furanoid) were the key aroma components that distinguished the summer tea samples from autumn tea samples. This study provides basic research data for analyzing the aroma components of Zaobaijian black tea from different seasons and lays a foundation for further exploration into the key aroma formation mechanism of Junlian Zaobaijian black tea.
Preparation and Characterization of Yak Ghee Microcapsules
LING Yueshuang, ZHANG Yan, CHEN Lianhong
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040190
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To improve the storage stability and bioavailability of traditional yak ghee, sodium alginate and CaCl2 were used as composite wall materials in this experiment, and yak ghee microcapsules were prepared using the sharp hole method. The optimal ghee microcapsule process parameters were determined using single factor experiment and orthogonal test with embedding rate as an index. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and laser particle size analyzer were used to determine the physicochemical properties of ghee microcapsules. Finally, the characteristics of ghee microcapsule release and storage stability in gastroenteric fluid were investigated. The results showed that when the sodium alginate concentration was 1.5%, the CaCl2 concentration was 2.5%, the core to wall mass ratio was 1.5:1, the emulsification temperature was 50 °C, and the curing time was 30 minutes, the maximum encapsulation rate of microcapsules was 89.41%. The water content, solubility, angle of repose and average particle size of the microcapsules were 5.25%, 57.22%, 20.6° and 929.773 µm, respectively. After microencapsulation, thermal stability of ghee improved. In the release test, microcapsules were released at rates of 11.52% and 96.44% in stomach and intestinal liquids. Microcapsules had a substantially longer shelf life than yak ghee.
Optimization of PEG 200 Extraction Process and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Dendrobium nobilis Flower
ZHAO Yangyang, XING Jie, LI Li, ZHAN Maoling, LI Fei, LIN Lifangzhou, WANG Lan, YANG Wenyu
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040072
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Objective: To extract polyphenols in Dendrobium nobilis flower (DNF) through a green process method and to evaluate its antioxidant activity. Methods: Using PEG200 as solvent, the single factors tests and response surface experiments were conducted to optimize the extraction conditions on the yield of polyphenols from DNF. AB-8 macroporous resin adsorption technology was applied for the enrichment of the above polyphenols and the recycling of PEG200. The ABTS and DPPH assays were performed to investigate the antioxidant properties of those polyphenols. Results: The optimal parameters were as follows: The solvent volume fraction was 55%, the liquid-solid ratio was 38:1 mL·g−1, the ultrasonic time was 99 min, the ultrasonic temperature was 80 ℃. The polyphenols yield could reached up to 338.88 mg·g−1 in these conditions. Within the test concentration range, the antioxidant capacity of those polyphenols was similar to that of ascorbic acid. The IC50 of ABTS and IC50 of DPPH of the polyphenols were 4.486 and 2.792 mg·mL−1 respectively. Conclusion: It is proposed that, with green and recyclable performances, PEG200 is a suitable solvent for efficiently extracting DNF polyphenols, which can be an efficient antioxidant and shows a good prospect in industrial application.
Effects of Heat-moisture Treatment on Glycemic Index and Relevant Indexes of Glutinous Rice Flour
WANG Dongxu, GUO Meiling, LIU Yirui, GUO Yu, YE Hua, GUO Yuanxin
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040041
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In this study, the heat-moisture treatment was used to decrease the glycemic index (GI) value of glutinous rice flour, and then relevant indexes were compared with those of other treatments. Based on the influence of moisture content, temperature and treatment time on amylose content and digestion characteristics of glutinous rice flour, the single factor ranges were determined, and then the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the heat-moisture treatment process with amylose content (which is significantly negative correlation with GI value) as a crucial index. Finally, the in vitro digestion characteristics and GI value of glutinous rice flour obtained by optimal heat-moisture treatment process (HMT), by ordinary process (WR), and only by enzymatic hydrolysis process (ER) respectively were compared to investigate the influence on GI value and other relevant indexes. The optimum heat-moisture conditions were: The treatment time was 2.3 h, the temperature was 116 ℃, and the moisture content was 20%. Under the optimum heat-moisture treatment conditions, the amylose content was 3.62%±0.01%, and it was confirmed that the average measured value was consistent with the theoretical value (3.62%), indicating that the model could be used to optimize the heat-moisture treatment process of glutinous rice flour. Compared with WR, the content of rapidly digestible starch and hydrolysis index were decreased significantly, and the contents of slow digestible starch and resistant starch were increased significantly, and GI value decreased by 30.1% in HMT. Taken altogether, the glutinous rice flour prepared by this heat-moisture treatment method had a relatively low GI value, which could provide experimental reference for the further development of low GI glutinous rice flour.
Preparation of Silver Carp Scale Antifreeze Peptides and Its Improvement Effect on Gel Properties of Frozen-thawed Surimi
LI Xiaozhen, CHEN Xu, YANG Fujia, HUANG Dan, HUANG Jianlian, LIU Yongle, WANG Shaoyun
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040039
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In this study, silver carp scale antifreeze peptides (ScAFPs) were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis. Taking the freeze-thawing survival rate of Streptococcus thermophilus as the main index and the degree of hydrolysis as the auxiliary index, the optimal enzymolysis preparation process of ScAFPs was obtained through single factor and response surface optimization. At the same time, the basic properties of ScAFPs and their influence on the gel stability of surimi were studied. The results showed that the selected enzyme preparation was trypsin, substrate concentration of 5.0%, enzyme dosage of 3.8%, enzymolysis temperature of 37 ºC, enzymolysis time of 3.5 h. Under these conditions, the frozen survival rate of ScAFPs against Streptococcus thermophilus was (82.19±1.03) % and the degree of hydrolysis was (7.54±0.43) %. The relative molecular weight of ScAFPs was mainly in the range of 180~3000 Da, and its isoelectric point was around 4.2. Moreover, ScAFPs had strong hydrophilicity and good thermal stability, which could effectively reduce the ice crystal content in the system. The effect of ScAFPs on gel properties of freezing-thawing surimi showed that after five freezing-thawing cycles, the decrease of gel whiteness, hardness, chewiness and gel strength of surimi treated by ScAFPs was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of surimi without cryoprotecter. When the addition of ScAFPs exceeded 2%, the freeze-thaw protection effect of ScAFPs on surimi was better than that of commercial antifreeze agents (4% sucrose and 4% sorbitol mixture). This study lays a theoretical foundation for the high-value utilization of silver carp scales and the application of ScAFPs as a new type of cryoprotectant in frozen surimi and its gel products.
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Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee
Quantitative Analysis of Food and Gut Microbiota Based on CiteSpace
WU Yuling, MA Yuchen, DENG Huxue, FU Caili, LI Zhanming
2022, 43(23): 1-10.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030235
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Based on the core corpus of Web of Science (WOS), CiteSpace software is utilized to analyze the annual number of publications, authors, institutional and national cooperation networks, keyword co-occurrence and emergence, and literature co-citation maps of 8310 related articles and reviews which is in the field of food and gut microbiota and published between 2004 and 2022. The results present that the annual number of publications in the field of food and gut microbiota is increasing from 2005, and the main research topic in this field is the influence of diet on gut microbiota and related diseases. Currently, research frontier is emulsifiers, symbiosis, gut microbiota, Akkermansia muciniphila, and Kefir. The number of publications from Chinese authors rank second in this field, but the international cooperation is lacking. In the future, more international cooperation should be performed to improve research skills.
Research Progress of Probiotics in Improving Milk Protein Allergy
CAO Ting, ZHAO Lina, CHEN Qingxue, YUE Yingxue, LÜ Xiuli, PING Lijun, LI Bailiang, HUO Guicheng
2022, 43(23): 11-18.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050245
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Cow milk protein allergy is one of the most common food allergic reactions in early childhood and often persists through adult life. Probiotics have influence on the intestinal microbiota and modulate the immune response. They may be tools that prevent or alleviate certain pathologies involving the gut immune system, such as cow milk protein allergy. In this review, significant research advances on cow milk protein allergy are explored, milk protein allergens and allergy mechanism are introduced. This review highlights recent progress in the probiotics related tothe cow milk protein allergy, which could improve milk protein allergy by regulating intestinal flora and improving intestinal immunity. Finally, the research status of hypoallergenic products is described as well as the problems faced in research and application are put forward. The in-depth study of probiotics to improve milk protein allergy has been a major breakthrough in the field of allergies, providing the theoretical basis for alleviating milk allergy.
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Future Food
Identification of Rice Varieties Based on Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy
WANG Qian, GE Hongyi, JIANG Yuying, ZHANG Yuan, QIN Yifei
2022, 43(23): 19-25.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120292
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In order to achieve accurate identification of rice varieties, a rice variety identification method based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technology was proposed. To select the terahertz band by Interval partial least square (iPLS) and standard deviation (SD), which determined the absorption spectrum data of the 0.53~1.21 THz band as the input data of the classification model. Then to use the decision tree (DT) identified absorption spectra of four kinds of rice and the model parameters was obtained by combining with the grid search algorithm. In order to increase the experimental contrast, logistic regression models and support vector machine models were used separately for comparative experiments, and the model classification accuracy was 80.75% and 88.75%, respectively. Experimental results showed that the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technology combined with SD, iPLS and DT methods can realize the accurate identification of rice varieties with an accuracy rate of up to 95%, providing a new identification method for the identification of agricultural varieties.
Design, Synthesis and Bioactivity of Polypeptide ACE Inhibitors
ZHOU Jiaqi, MA Chunyan, LI Xiaohui
2022, 43(23): 26-34.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030117
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In this study, using angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides PHP1 and PHP2 as the parent peptides, the hydrophobicity and electrical properties of target polypeptides were altered by substituting amino acid residues. In addition, the potential bioactivity of these polypeptides was assessed using bioinformatics tools. Following this analysis, 19 polypeptide analogues were designed and synthesized using solid-phase synthesis, and their bioactivities were detected in vitro. The results revealed that the polypeptide analogues showed relatively high ACE inhibitory activities, PHP1A-6 (IC50=3.87 μmol/L), PHP2A-3 (IC50=3.33 μmol/L), PHP2A-4 (IC50=2.86 μmol/L), and PHP2A-7 (IC50=4.58 μmol/L) exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity levels, significantly higher than the parent peptides (P<0.05). PHP1A-3, PHP1A-4, PHP1A-7, PHP2A-1 and PHP2A-10 displayed equal levels of inhibitory activity in comparison to the parent peptides (IC50<10 μmol/L). Compared with the parent peptides, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity levels demonstrated by most of the polypeptide analogues were significantly enhanced, PHP1A-3 (IC50=3.09 μmol/L), PHP1A-7 (IC50=9.51 μmol/L), PHP2A-6 (IC50=5.58 μmol/L), PHP2A-11 (IC50=2.35 μmol/L), and PHP2A-12 (IC50=3.98 μmol/L) exhibited the highest activities. Additionally, PHP1A-3 and PHP1A-7 displayed relatively strong inhibitory activity against both ACE and α-glucosidase. At concentrations of 1 mg/mL, the polypeptides containing Cys displayed an ABTS+· scavenging rate of higher than 85%, demonstrating a potential antioxidant activity. The structure-activity relationship between the ACE inhibitory peptides and ACE were explored using molecular docking. The results reflected that inhibitory peptides produced multiple stable hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, π-π stacking interactions, and salt bridges with ACE amino acid residues, thereby improving the inhibitory effects exerted on ACE.
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Research and Investigation
Effects of Oxidation and Different Ionic Environment on the Binding of Pork Myofibrillar Protein to Flavor Substances
GAN Xiao, ZHAO Ling, WU Qian, CHEN Xiwen
2022, 43(23): 35-41.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010139
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The changes of structure and function of pork myofibrillar protein induced by oxidation and its ability to bind flavor substances under different ionic conditions were studied. 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, hexanal, octanal and nonanal were selected as volatile compounds in the experiment. The ability of myofibrillar protein to bind volatile compounds was observed by headspace combined gas chromatography. The results confirmed that the secondary structure and function of oxidized myofibrillar protein changed. Oxidized myofibrillar protein could promote the release of 2-methyl-butanal and nonanal. Moreover, the effect of oxidized myofibrillar protein on 3-methyl-butanal, hexanal and octanal was dependent on AAPH concentration. The addition of Na+ promoted the release of hexanal, while the addition of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ promoted the absorption of 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, octanal and nonal. Consequently, during the processing and storage of meat and meat products, oxidation of meat protein could change its structure and function, and then affect the ability of protein to combine flavor substances. In addition, sodium chloride is partially replaced by other salts in meat products, resulting in changes in the ionic environment of proteins, resulting in changes in the ability of proteins to combine flavor substances, thus changing the flavor of meat products.
Study on Aggregation of Carotenoids in Hydrated Organic Solution System
ZHAO Yingyuan, JIA Huihui, LI Ziwei, LIANG Jin, LI Ruifang, CHEN Di, WANG Jing
2022, 43(23): 42-49.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010152
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Carotenoids have numerous biological activities which are beneficial for human health, and can be spontaneously aggregated to different aggregates in certain conditions. In this paper, the effects of different proportions of hydrated organic solutions and different adding sequences on the types of carotenoids aggregates (H aggregates, M monomer and J aggregates), formation conditions and stability of three carotenoids (astaxanthin, lutein and β-carotene) were investigated. The astaxanthin acetone solution, lutein ethanol solution and β-carotene acetone solution were mixed in two different dropping sequences: Water into organic and organic into water, according to the proportion of organic solvents in the total volume from 10% to 90%, and the resulting sample was observed and analyzed by the UV-vis absorption spectrum. These results showed that when the astaxanthin, lutein and β-carotene formed H aggregates the volume ratios of organic solvents were 10%~20%, 10%~50% and 10%~40%, respectively. Astaxanthin formed J aggregates at 30% and β-carotene formed J aggregates at 50%~70%, respectively. Lutein was a lutein monomer when organic solvent takes up 60%~90% of the total volume. The conditions for the formation of aggregates were similar to those of organic water in addition sequence. However, it was found that the movement of absorption peak in UV-vis spectrum was more obvious under the sequence of organic water addition. After the samples were placed at room temperature (25 ℃) for 24 h and 48 h, the stability of aggregates was investigated. The H aggregates of lutein remains unchanged, however the H aggregates of astaxanthin and β-carotene gradually transformed into J aggregates. This study provides data support for the formation conditions and stability of carotenoid aggregates, thus offering theoretical basis for the application of carotenoids and their aggregates in food, medicine, cosmetics and other fields.
Effect of Ultrahigh Pressure Treatment on Quality of Mango Puree
ZHANG Zhenzhen, ZHANG Sinan, WU Yuanbin, ZHENG Chuyao, JIANG Zhuo
2022, 43(23): 50-55.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010162
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To improve the quality of mango puree, this study adopted three non-thermal processing methods of ultra-high pressure, irradiation and low-temperature plasma to treat mango puree and analyzed and compared the sterilization effects of different methods. The effect of the optimum method (ultrahigh pressure) on the flavor, color, content of soluble solids and storage stability of mango puree was further studied. The results showed that both ultrahigh pressure (≥200 MPa) and irradiation (≥3 kGy) had good bactericidal effect on mango puree, and the total number of bacteria in mango puree ≤2 lg(CFU/g), reached the commercial sterile standard. However, the effect of low temperature plasma treatment was not ideal. When the treatment time was less than 6 min, the total number of bacteria in fruit puree did not reach the commercial sterile standard. The results showed that the taste of mango puree was similar to that of the control sample. The storage life of mango puree treated with pressure greater than 500 MPa was stable, especially the storage life of samples treated with 600 MPa could reach at least 9 months. The results showed that the high pressure could not only killed the harmful microorganisms in mango puree, but also improved the stability of mango puree, and maintained the original quality of mango puree to the maximum extent. This study provided some theoretical basis and method guidance for the application of ultrahigh pressure technology in food processing.
Effect of Heat Treatment and Protein Concentration on the Stability and Rheological Properties of Myofibrillar Protein Emulsion
HAO Meng, MAO Shucan, ZHOU Zhi, WANG Lan, XIONG Guangquan, SHI Liu
2022, 43(23): 56-63.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020066
Abstract(13) HTML(9) PDF(4)
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This research was to obtain stable myofibrillar protein emulsion. Myofibrillar protein was extracted from frozen silver carp surimi, and the effects of heat treatment (85 ℃ for 10 min) and protein concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/mL) on the aggregation ratio, particle size, zeta-potential and microstructure of myofibrillar protein and structure, apparent viscosity and color of soybean oil-myofibrillar protein emulsion were investigated. The results showed that heat treatment led to the increase of particle size and decrease of apparent viscosity of myofibrillar protein, namely protein aggregation. While emulsion prepared with thermal treated myofibrillar protein displayed high L* and b* value and low hydrophobicity. With the increase of myofibrillar protein concentration, the apparent viscosity increased, and the zeta-potential fluctuate increased, no matter the myofibrillar protein solution subjected to heat treatment or not. The minimum particle size of un-heated and heated myofibrillar protein solution was obtained when the protein concentration was 10 and 25 mg/mL, respectively. Besides, the optical microscopy observed that the number of oil droplets involved in emulsification gradually increased, the particle size of oil droplets gradually decreased, the coalescence among oil droplets gradually reduced, when the concentration of myofibrillar protein increased. Therefore, when the protein concentration was in the range of 10~20 mg/mL and the oil ratio was 0.6, the emulsion prepared with thermal treated myofibrillar protein showed high stability and expressed as small and dispersed emulsion droplets and low apparent viscosity. This study is of great significance for the development of stable myofibrillar protein emulsion.
Effects of Carboxymethyl and Emulsive Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch Gum on Gluten Reinforcement of Wheat Flour
WEI Xiaoyi, SI Xiaojing, CUI Linlin, ZHANG Luyao, HAN Mei, HE Jianjie, SU Tingting
2022, 43(23): 64-70.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020070
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Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch gum (ASKG) can be carboxymethylated and greasy-based emulsified to improve its water solubility and emulsifying property, while the effect of modified ASKG on wheat flour processing as a gluten enhancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the gluten-increasing effect of ASKG in the formation of wheat flour dough and the production of greasy dough through its carboxymethylation and emulsification modification. The results showed that the carboxymethylation could reduce the optimum addition amount of ASKG from 1.0% to 0.4% in wheat flour. Carboxymethyl ASKG (C-ASKG) increased the wet gluten content, gluten index, water absorption, dough development time, dough stability time, and reduced the weakening degree. However, C-ASKG did not show better reinforcement in greasy dough than ASKG. In comparison, ASKG emulsified (E-ASKG) by wheat germ oil and palm stearin fat was shown to be more suitable for greasy dough modulation. The addition of 1.0% of ASKG and 5% of oil or fat in flour by emulsification manner reduced the difference between the oil and fat during the formation of gluten and improve the evaluation indexes of dough texture. This study demonstrated that carboxymethylation could reduce the dosage of ASKG used in wheat flour as a gluten enhancer, while emulsive ASKG was suitable for the gluten reinforcement of water-oiled dough.
Study on Isolation, Purification, Structure Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharide from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao
ZHAO Jiancheng, LIU Huiyan, FANG Haitian
2022, 43(23): 71-78.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020076
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The isolation and purification, structure characterization and antioxidant activity of Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao polysaccharides were studied. The crude polysaccharide HZPC was extracted from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, and then separated and purified by DEAE-52 anionic chromatography column and Sephadex G-100 dexan gel column. The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of HZPC-2 were determined by high performance gel chromatography (HPGPC) and ion chromatography (IC), and the structural characteristics of HZPC-2 were studied by ULTRAVIOLET spectrum, infrared spectrum and scanning electron microscope. Finally, the antioxidant activities of HZPC-2 were evaluated. The results showed that HZPC-2 polysaccharide was a neutral polysaccharide with α-glucopyranoside framework (JDP-N), its molecular weight was 3.25×104 Da. It was composed of rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), mannose (Man) and galacturonic acid (GalA). The mole ratio was 0.05:0.34:0.29:0.15:0.08:0.02:0.06. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of HZPC-2 was furry-shaped and extended in all directions, and the interior of HZPC-2 was embedded with porous structures. In vitro antioxidant tests showed that HZPC-2 had the strongest scavenging activity against DPPH radical, followed by hydroxyl radical, and the weakest scavenging activity against ABTS radical. It can be used as a potential antioxidant and provide a basis for the development of food with the function of Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao polysaccharides.
Regulation and Control of Wheat Protein on the Comprehensive Quality of Low-salt Sausage Substitued Partly by KCl
ZHANG Qiuhui, LIU Chang, ZHAO Lijun, ZHAO Gaiming, LI Miaoyun, ZHAO Chunbo
2022, 43(23): 79-85.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020077
Abstract(7) HTML(4) PDF(2)
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Objective: The aim of this paper was to study the effect of wheat protein on the quality of low-NaCl pork sausage and find the suitable range of wheat protein under different NaCl conditions. Methods: By single factor experiment, 0~50% KCl substitution levels and 0~8% wheat protein adding levels were applied. The texture, color, yield and water-holding capacity of products were determined. And then all the data were processed by means of variance analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and regression analysis to study the effects of wheat protein on the quality of low-NaCl products, discuss the relationship between the quality indexes, establish the comprehensive quality evaluation model and find the optimum addition of wheat protein under different KCl substitution levels with the established model. Results: When KCl substituted level was 20%~30%, 6%~8% wheat protein significantly increased the product yield and water-holding capacity. The comprehensive quality evaluation model of low-NaCl pork sausage controlled by wheat protein was established: Y4=0.342×(0.127×Z1+0.169×Z2+...−0.110×Z10−0.108×Z11)+0.230×(0.328×Z10−0.185×Z2+...+0.115×Z10+0.249×Z11)+0.146×(−0.088×Z1+0.315×Z2+...+0.367×Z10+0.308×Z11). The optimum condition of wheat protein regulating low-NaCl pork sausage was 40% KCl substitution, and wheat protein addition was 6%. Conclusion: Construction of the prediction model of wheat protein addition to the quality of smoked and cooked sausage by multivariate analysis methods could guide the actual production and control the product quality.
The Interaction between Betanin and Whey Protein: Based on Multi-spectroscopy and Molecular Simulation
HU Ting, GENG Qin, FU Min, CHEN Jun, HE Xuemei, SUN Jian, DAI Taotao
2022, 43(23): 86-94.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020243
Abstract(68) HTML(19) PDF(22)
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In order to study the interaction between betanin and whey protein isolate (WPI) and the effect of whey protein isolate on the thermal stability of betanin, WPI-Betanin complex was constructed by self-assembly method. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to verify the formation of complex. The mechanism of complex formation and the changes of protein structure were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism, and the complex was visualized by molecular simulation technology. The results showed that betanin and whey protein isolate formed a complex mainly through van der Waals force and hydrogen bond, and the number of binding sites was about 1. The formation of the complex resulted in increased turbidity and decreased surface hydrophobicity of the protein, and the quenching mechanism was static, with a quenching constant of 1.78×103 L/mol at room temperature. The interaction changed secondary structure contents and the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine in whey protein isolate. Moreover, the thermal stability of betanin was improved by WPI. The retention rate of betanin increased from 6.17% to 27.26% after heating at 80 ℃ for 1 h. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application and development of functional protein pigment complex and the color protection of betanin.
Analysis on Quality Difference of Agate Red Cherry in Different Regions
ZHANG Ni, TAO Qiuyun, PU Yingying, CAO Sen, WANG Rui, JI Ning
2022, 43(23): 95-102.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030112
Abstract(62) HTML(14) PDF(20)
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Objective: By comparing and analyzing the quality of agate red cherries in different regions of Guizhou Province, the quality differences of these cherries in different areas could be obtained. Methods: The fresh fruits of agate red cherries from Kaiyang, Nayong and Zhijin were picked at the same maturity period, then the fruit weight, soluble solids, total flavonoids, polyphenol and related enzyme activities were measured. Results: From the appearance of the fruit, there was no significant difference in the size of the cherry fruit in the three regions, but the color of the cherry fruit in Nayong was relatively red. In terms of texture, the hardness of cherry fruit in Nayong area was 861.14 g, which was 1.82 times and 1.5 times of Zhijin and Kaiyang respectively. From the nutritional value, the highest free amino acid content of cherry fruit in Zhijin was 46.01 mg∙100 g−1. For the determination of metal ions, the selenium content in Kaiyang area was 153.51 μg/g, which was 11 times of Nayong and 1.27 times of Zhijin. From different aspects, the cherry fruits in the three regions had their own advantages, and the appearance of cherry fruits in Nayong region was relatively good, while the free amino acid and metal ion content of cherry fruits in Zhijin and Kaiyang areas were relatively high. This may be due to the differences in geographical location, climatic conditions and other factors, resulting in certain differences in nutritional value and fruit shape of cherry fruits in the three regions.
Effects of Different Salting Methods on the Quality Traits, Histomorphology and Protein Structure of Cooked Pork Steaks
SONG Yu, ZHENG Jian, HUANG Feng, LI Xia, HAN Dong, ZHANG Chunhui
2022, 43(23): 103-111.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030282
Abstract(17) HTML(14) PDF(5)
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different salting methods (wet salting, dry salting, ultrasonic assisted wet salting) on quality traits (color, texture, water retention capacity), histomorphology and protein structure of cooked pork steaks. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles of pork were selected as experimental material, and the meat samples were salted by different methods and then cooked. Meat quality, water distribution, histomorphology, protein surface hydrophobicity and protein secondary structure of cooked meat were determined. The results showed that different salting methods had significant influences on the quality traits of cooked pork steaks. In comparison with the other two salting methods, the sample salted by ultrasonic had the lowest cooking loss, the highest redness value, and the highest viscosity and tenderness. The results of water distribution showed that the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation intensity were the highest in samples of ultrasonic assisted salting. Meanwhile, the transverse relaxation time was the longest in cooked samples of ultrasonic-assisted salting, the proportion of immobilized water was the highest, and the proportion of free water was the lowest. Ultrasonic assisted salting increased muscle fiber swelling, and individual myofibers in the salted tissue could be discerned, perhaps due to the degradation of connective tissue during salting. Additionally, the cooked meat samples of ultrasonic assisted salting had the strongest protein hydrophobicity ability. Protein secondary structure analyses showed that the meat samples in ultrasonic assisted salting group exhibited the lowest content of α-helix and β-turn, and the highest content of β-sheet and random coil, indicating the highest degree of protein unfolding. Moreover, protein structural changes in cooked meat were significantly correlated with meat quality traits.
Impacts of Thermal Treatment on the Digestibility of Astaxanthin-enriched Eggs
GU Luping, FAN Qiao, LI Junhua, CHANG Cuihua, YANG Yanjun, SU Yujie
2022, 43(23): 112-118.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060116
Abstract(17) HTML(3) PDF(2)
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The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of four thermal treatments on the stability of astaxanthin-enriched eggs (hot spring, soft-boiled, hard-boiled and pan-fried eggs). And a simulated gastrointestinal tract model was designed to evaluate the lipid and protein digestibility, molecular weight distribution of protein, biostability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin. Results showed that thermal treatment led to the degradation of astaxanthin. Among these, soft-boiled had the highest retention ratio, 97.21%. Compared with raw eggs, boiled eggs had higher lipid and protein digestibility. Soft-boiled and hot spring eggs exhibited the highest digestibility, however, a lower digestibility was observed on the pan-fried eggs. These results were confirmed by electrophoresis analysis that the fractions with high molecular weight in the soft-boiled and hot spring eggs disappeared. There was no significant difference on the biostability of eggs astaxanthin under different thermal treatment, which was 48.76%~49.47%, while boiling eggs could effectively improve the bioaccessibility as compared with raw eggs. The soft-boiled and hot spring eggs exhibited relatively higher bioaccessibility, 48.76% and 47.71%, respectively. These results suggested that soft-boiled astaxanthin-enriched eggs could be used as a promising approach for natural astaxanthin supplementation.
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Bioengineering
Study on in Vitro Functional Characteristics of Three Strains of Lactobacillus in Fruit and Vegetable Fermentation Broth
ZHOU Xiaoli, WANG Yanli, WU Chengmu, ZHU Guangxu, PAN Manlin
2022, 43(23): 119-126.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020225
Abstract(20) HTML(5) PDF(4)
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Taking 3 strains of Lactobacillus isolated from fruits and vegetables natural fermentation broth as the object, the surface characteristics of Lactobacillus were analyzed by measuring the surface hydrophobicity and self-aggregation rate; DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and iron reducing ability were used as indexes to analyze the difference of antioxidant ability of three Lactobacillus strains in vitro; to evaluate the functional activity of Lactobacillus using cholesterol and nitrite degradation as indicators. The results showed that among the three strains, L3 had good surface hydrophobicity and self-aggregation rate, which were 57.7% and 95.2% (24 h) respectively; The supernatants of the three strains had stronger DPPH radical (>90%) and hydroxyl radical clearance (>68%) and reduction ability (>1.0), among which L1 and L3 supernatant had stronger hydroxyl radical clearance, nearly 90% and L2 had stronger anti-lipid peroxidation ability (>37%); Lactobacillus almost completely degraded 200 mg/L NaNO2 within 48 h; The supernatants of the three strains had good cholesterol degradation ability (>19%), and their active substances were mainly proteins and polysaccharides. In summary, the three strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the fermentation broth of fruits and vegetables show good probiotic properties, which can lay a solid foundation for the development of functional fermented foods.
Effect of Fermentation with Single and Co-culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on the Quality of Yogurt
TANG Kaiwei, HUANG Xiaoying, YI Yuwen, ZHU Chenglin, DENG Jing, YE Haixiao, TANG Junni
2022, 43(23): 127-132.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020250
Abstract(21) HTML(12) PDF(12)
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In order to investigate the effects of fermentation with single and co-culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on the quality of yogurt, the fermentation characteristics, sensory features, rheology and texture of yogurt produced by the above two fermentation approaches were tested. The results showed that the curdling time of co-culture fermented yogurt was 8 h, which was shorter than that of single-strain fermented yogurt, and reached the end point of fermentation at 70 °T earlier. Sensory evaluation evaluated that the scores of co-culture fermentation yogurt were higher than that of single culture yogurt. Moreover, the ratio of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was 3:7 with the highest score. The measurement results of rheological properties showed that the apparent viscosity of co-culture fermented yogurt was 0.4~0.5 Pa·s lower than that of single-bacteria fermented yogurt of 1.6~1.9 Pa·s. As for texture analysis, the hardness, viscosity and absolute value of cohesiveness of co-culture fermented yogurt were significantly lower than that of single culture yogurt (P<0.05). The data of electronic nose showed that the odor of co-culture fermented yogurt was stronger than that of single bacteria fermented yogurt. In addition, electronic tongue test showed that the co-culture fermented yogurt exhibited more balanced in terms of different tastes. Electronic nose and electronic tongue could effectively distinguish the difference between single and co-culture fermented yogurt through principal component analysis. Based on the above results, the taste and flavor of co-culture fermented yogurt are better than that of single bacteria fermented ones.
Correlation Analysis between Microbial Diversity and Physicochemical Indexes, Volatile Flavor during the Fermentation of Red Millet Huangjiu
GU Xiaodong, LI Suping, YANG Liuqing, LIU Yilin, MA Yanli, CHEN Zhizhou, WANG Yinzhuang, LIU Xu
2022, 43(23): 133-143.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020255
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In order to explore the correlation between physicochemical indexes, volatile flavor and microbial diversity during the fermentation of red millet Huangjiu, high throughput sequencing of microorganisms, physicochemical index detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used and SPSS software was applied for correlation analysis. The results showed that during the progress of fermentation, the content of reducing sugar decreased rapidly at first and then became stabilized gradually, while the trend of alcohol content was opposite; the content of total acid increased rapidly in the early stage, then decreased and finally increased again, while the pH value stayed at a same level; the alteration of amino acid nitrogen level was volatility rised in the beginning and then increased fast, while soluble solids content first declined quickly and then kept stabilized. A total of 14 bacterial phyla and 228 bacterial genera, 7 fungal phyla and 108 fungal genera were detected in 10 stages (1~7, 10, 20, 30 days) during fermentation. At the genus level, the bacterial community could be clustered in 3 types, and the fungal community could be clustered in 5 types. Bacteria genus levels were positively correlated with total acid (P<0.05) while negatively correlated with reducing sugar (P<0.05), and fungi genus levels were positively correlated with amino nitrogen (P<0.05). 2,3-Butanediol and ethyl lactate were positively correlated with most of the bacteria (P<0.05). Klebsiella was negatively correlated with ethyl octanoate (P<0.05), while Lactococcus was negatively correlated with ethanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, phenylethanol and ethyl palmitate (P<0.05). Monascus was significantly negatively correlated with ethyl lactate (P<0.05), while Apiotrichum was negatively correlated with 2-butanol, isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol (P<0.05). Our results indicated that the microbial diversity significantly changed during the fermentation of red millet Huangjiu, which had a certain correlation with the physicochemical indicators and flavor variations. These findings provided a theoretical reference for the subsequent study on quality improvement and deve-lopment of red millet Huangjiu.
Effect of Different Fermentation Methods on the Quality and Flavor of Semen Sojae Preparatum
ZHAO Chaofan, WU Shanshan, ZHAO Wenjun, PENG Dong, HUANG Junyuan, DU Bing, LI Pan
2022, 43(23): 144-152.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030095
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In present study, Rhizopus chinensis 12 mixed fermentation with Bacillus sp. DU-106 were performed to improve the quality and flavor of Semen Sojae Praeparatum (SSP). The levels of physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds, free amino acids, and volatile components during the mixed fermentation process were monitored. Compared to SSP fermented only with R. chinensis 12, the levels of physicochemical characteristics were not obviously changed after mixed fermentation. However, thrombolytic enzyme activity and soy isoflavone content after mixed fermentation were significantly higher when compared to those of SSP fermented only with R. chinensis 12, and reached to 3927.84 IU/g and 3.91 mg/g, respectively. The amount of bitter amino acids and umami amino acids after mixed fermentation slightly lower than those of SSP fermented only with R. chinensis 12. The contents of flavor composition were considerably altered after mixed fermentation, of which, the pyrazine prevailed in SSP fermented only with R. chinensis 12, while, alkane predominated in SSP after mixed fermentation. Overall, the Rhizopus chinensis 12 mixed fermentation with Bacillus sp. DU-106 contributed to improve the thrombolytic activity, free amino acid content, and flavors of SSP.
Effect of Microbial Fermentation Technology on Chemical Constituents of Pueraria thomsonii
YANG Jinmei, LI Guanwen, WANG Huimin, ZHANG Najun, CHEN Chao, SUN Jie, QIN Nan
2022, 43(23): 153-160.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030096
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Objective: In order to expand the research of functional products, the content of active ingredients in Pueraria thomsonii was increased by microbial fermentation technology. Methods: Firstly, the fermentation process of Pueraria thomsonii was optimized by the combination of single factor test and response surface methodology with the decoction pieces of Pueraria thomsonii as raw material, L. acidophilus as fermentation strain, puerarin content as index, and inoculation amount, solid-liquid ratio, fermentation time and fermentation temperature as acting factors. Secondly, the contents of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, total isoflavones, soluble polysaccharides and total starch in Pueraria thomsonii were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry and dual wavelength method before and after fermentation. Results: The optimal fermentation conditions were as follows: Inoculation amount 5%, solid-liquid ratio 1:3 g/mL, fermentation time 36 h, fermentation temperature 29 ℃. The relative error was 0.29% between the actual content 8.1854 mg/g and predicted value 8.2092 mg/g of puerarin. After fermentation, the contents of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, total isoflavones, soluble polysaccharides and amylopectin in Pueraria thomsonii increased, while the contents of amylose and total starch decreased, showing significant differences compared with those before fermentation (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that microbial fermentation technology could improve the content of active ingredients in Pueraria thomsonii.
Evaluation of Environmental Resistance of Cronobacter spp.
PANG Lidong, SONG Danliangmin, JIA Ai, LI Yu, LIANG Yaqi, SU Qunchao, ZHENG Yaping, LI Ran, MAN Chaoxin, JIANG Yujun
2022, 43(23): 161-167.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040050
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Powdered infant formula (PIF) is the main source of Cronobacter spp. contamination, among which the addition of raw and auxiliary materials and the processing environment are the most important routes of transmission. In order to effectively prevent and control Cronobacter spp. to ensure the safety of dairy products, eight strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from PIF and its processing environment were used as the research objects. Their heat resistance, acid and alkali resistance, dryness resistance and permeability resistance were studied, and the differences of environmental resistance of different strains were analyzed. The results showed that Cronobacter spp. had different heat resistance. The strains isolated from the end products had relatively stronger heat resistance. Cronobacter spp. generally had the characteristics of acid resistance but not alkali resistance. Under the acidic conditions at pH1.5, all strains could still survive being treated for 30 s. Cronobacter spp. had strong resistance to desiccation. The bacterial count of all strains decreased from an initial concentration of 108 CFU/mL to 105 CFU/mL over the course of the 7-month test at room temperature with a relative air humidity of 20.7%. The slow decreasing trend indicated that Cronobacter spp. had a strong ability to resist dry environment. Cronobacter spp. had a strong resistance to osmosis. We found that all strains grew slowly when the concentration of NaCl was over 8% and the tolerance of Cronobacter spp. to sorbitol was stronger than that to NaCl under isotonic conditions.
Isolation and Identification of Dominant Spoilage Biogenic Amine Producing Bacteria from Refrigerated Skipjack Tuna and Analysis of Their Production Ability
LIU Yangfan, WANG Di, LI Chunsheng, XIANG Huan, CHEN Shengjun, YANG Xianqing, LI Laihao, DENG Jianchao
2022, 43(23): 168-175.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040070
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In order to explore the types of dominant spoilage biogenic amine-producing bacteria in skipjack tuna, three dominant bacteria were screened from refrigerated skipjack tuna. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA molecular identification technology, which were Pseudomonas fluorescens, Citrobacter freundii and Aeromonas hydrophila. The dominant spoilage biogenic amine-producing bacteria were inoculated onto sterile fish and stored at 4 ℃. By measuring the total number of colonies and the value of volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), we used the yield factor (YTVB-N/CFU) of spoilage metabolites to analyze the spoilage ability of the three dominant spoilage biogenic amine-producing bacteria. The production ability of bacteria was compared by detecting the content of biogenic amines in the samples. The results showed that the total number of colonies in the groups inoculated with P. fluorescens, C. freundii and A. hydrophila were 8.36, 8.27 and 8.13 lg CFU/g at the end of storage, respectively. The TVB-N values reached 28.21, 30.30 and 31.29 mg/100 g, respectively. The spoilage ability of the three dominant spoilage amine-producing bacteria were A. hydrophila>C. freundii>P. fluorescence. On the 8th day of storage, the histamine contents of the P. fluorescens, C. freundii and A. hydrophila groups reached 196.23, 83.43 and 261.22 mg/kg, respectively. The total biogenic amine contents of the three groups of samples at the end of storage were A. hydrophila>P. fluorescens>C. freundii. The combined comparison concluded that A. hydrophila had the highest spoilage biogenic amine-producing ability in skipjack tuna. This study increased the knowledge and provided a partial theoretical basis for the dominant spoilage biogenic amine producing species in refrigerated skipjack tuna.
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Processing Technology
Optimization of Extraction Process of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Artichoke Dietary Fiber
ZHU Renwei, XU Tianhui, HUANG Liang, HE Bian
2022, 43(23): 176-182.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070112
Abstract(38) HTML(9) PDF(9)
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To study the extraction rate of soluble dietary fiber (soluble dietary fiber, SDF) contained in the artichoke after ultrafine crushing and high pressure homogenization composite modification, single factor experiment was conducted to investigate the homogenization temperature, homogenization pressure and material concentration on artichoke SDF yield. The response surface method was used to optimize the artichoke SDF extraction process with three factors and three levels. The model between artichoke SDF extraction conditions and yield was established and analyzed to obtain the optimal process parameters and improve the artichoke SDF yield. The results showed that after ultrafine crushing and high pressure homogenization compound modification, the yield of artichoke SDF was significantly affected by the compound modification. The best process for extracting artichoke SDF was a homogenization temperature of 41 ℃ and a homo-genization pressure of 97 MPa, material concentration 2.5%. The theoretical maximum yield of artichoke SDF was 20.70%. With this process, the average yield of artichoke SDF was 20.13%. The Fourier infrared spectroscopy showed that the chemical composition of artichoke dietary fiber had not changed after compound modification.
Optimization of Preparation Technology of Blueberry Candied Syrup-based Set Yoghurt
ZHI Li, SHENG Meiqi, SONG Yurong, SUN Xu, ZHU Liqiang, ZHU Chengcheng, WEI Wenyi, YIN Ze, JIN Limei, LI Zhijiang
2022, 43(23): 183-191.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010208
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The concentrated blueberry candied syrup and the whole milk sterilized pure milk were used as raw material to prepare set yoghurt. The influence of addition amount for blueberry candied syrup, sugar content, starter inoculation quantity and fermentation time on the yogurt sensory quality, whey exhalation rate and acidity were investigated. Furthermore, the response surface experiment was carried out on the basis of single factor experiment to optimize the set yoghurt preparation technological parameters. Then the texture parameters of yoghurt were compared with those of commercial yoghurt. The results showed that the optimal preparation technology of blueberry set yoghurt was as follows: The addition amount of concentrate blueberry candied syrup (concentration ratio 2 with the total sugar content 0.679 mg/mL) in the yoghurt 7%, custer sugar 4%, starter inoculation amount 0.6%, whey protein powder 2%, and fermentation control time 11 h. Under these conditions, the whey release rate was 12.43%, the acidity was 83.66°T and the sensory score reached the highest score 88.13. The blueberry set yoghurt was purple with strong frankincense and blueberry flavor. The hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness of this product were lower than those of commercially available fermented milk, but the water holding capacity was stronger. It was more delicate and refreshing, which tasted better than the commercially available products with thickening agent addition. In this study, the basic preparation conditions of set yoghurt of blueberry preserved fruit syrup were determined, which provided useful reference for improving the comprehensive utilization value of blueberry preserved fruit syrup and developing new fruity set yoghurt.
Optimization of the Extraction Process of Triterpenoids from the Seeds of Syzygium jambos L. Alston by Response Surface Methodology and Its Antioxidant Activity
LIU Jiaxin, CHEN Xiaomei, ZENG Hui, WANG Shumei, XIANG Limin
2022, 43(23): 192-199.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020016
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In this study the single factor experiments were employed to determine the effects of various factors on extraction rate of triterpenoids in the seeds of S. jambos L. Alston using the yields as indicator. Then Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the extraction process using the Design-Expert 12 software. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of triterpenoids in the seeds of S. jambos L. Alston was evaluated by determining the scavenging capacity of DPPH and ABTS free radical. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: Methanol concentration 44.30%, solid-liquid ratio 1:47.18 g/mL, extraction time was 101.07 min (adjusted to 101 min in the experiment). Under these conditions, the deviation between the experimental extraction yield value (12.11 mg/g) and the predicted value (12.28 mg/g) of triterpenoids in the seeds of S. jambos L. Alston was only 1.26% (<5%), and the error was small. The IC50 values of scavenging rates on DPPH and ABTS free radicals were 24.93 and 12.16 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity showed a certain dose effect relationship with the sample concentration. The results indicated that this optimization test was effective and feasible, and the extracted S. jambos L. Alston triterpenoids had good antioxidant activity in vitro. The present study provides supplement information for the potential use of the seeds of S. jambos L. Alston in food and medicine ingredients.
AuNPs Enhanced Microwave Coupled Lipase Synthesis of Starch Oleate Ester
WANG Yan, LI Hongjia, CHENG Meijia, XIE Jinhui, LIU Tianjiao, XIN Jiaying, ZHANG Na
2022, 43(23): 200-209.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020183
Abstract(7) HTML(1) PDF(2)
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The nano-gold immobilized lipase (CAL@AuNPs) was prepared to synthesize starch oleate ester efficiently by using pre-treated corn starch and oleic acid as raw materials. Optimisation of the preparation conditions of CAL@AuNPs was carried out using oleic acid conversion rate as an indicator. The substitution degree was used as an indicator to investigate the catalytic efficiency of free enzyme, commercial immobilised enzyme and nanogold immobilised lipase under microwave-assisted conditions. The experimental results showed that the immobilized lipase with the strongest catalytic activity could be obtained by using AuNPs of 14 nm as carrier at 40 ℃ for 6 h. The starch oleate ester with the highest substitution degree of 0.0259 could be prepared by using CAL@AuNPs as catalyst under the condition of 400 W, 35 ℃ for 40 min. Compared with free enzyme, and commercial immobilized enzyme , the CAL@AuNPs could shorten reaction time and improve the degree of substitution.
Optimization of Color Protection Technology of Pear Paste Based on Z-score Evaluation Model
LI Yue, ZHAO Jiangli, ZHANG Xiaoying, WANG Yongxia, GUAN Junfeng
2022, 43(23): 210-217.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030088
Abstract(9) HTML(4) PDF(3)
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In order to optimize the color protection technology of ‘Yali’ pear paste, a Z-score (Z value) comprehensive evaluation model was established based on browning degree, total phenolics, total flavonoids content, and sensory score analysis and then the Z value was employed to optimize the color protection parameters for “Yali” pear paste through single factor tests and response surface methodolog (RSM). The flavour and taste of “Yali” pear paste prepared under optimized conditions and without color protection were tested with electronic nose and electronic tongue technology, respectively. Results showed that the optimum process conditions for “Yali” pear paste color protection were added amount of sodium ascorbate 0.02% (m/v), citric acid 0.05% (m/v) and potassium metabisulfite 0.02% (m/v). “Yali” pear paste prepared under the optimized conditions showed a semitransparent state with bright yellow color, special pear flavour, moderate sour and sweet feeling, its browning degree, total phenolics, total flavonoids content and the sensory score were 0.201, 59.80, 80.10 μg/mL and 9.38 respectively. Moreover, its Z-value for comprehensive evaluation method was 5.14, closing to the theoretical value of 5.03. The electronic nose technology made a perfect distinction on flavour between the optimized condition and without color protection of “Yali” pear paste. The electronic tongue analysis showed that “Yali” pear paste prepared under optimized conditions aroused stronger signals than paste without color protection in taste richness and sour sensors.
Optimization of Decolorization Process of Antarctic Krill Peptides by Response Surface Methodology
LIU Xiaofang, HUANG Yuelei, LENG Kailiang, LI Fuhou, DING Qi, MIAO Junkui, YU Yuan
2022, 43(23): 218-225.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030136
Abstract(25) HTML(6) PDF(9)
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In order to optimize the decolorization process of Antarctic krill peptides and improve the product quality, activated carbon adsorption method was used to remove the pigment from the Antarctic krill peptides solution. Taking the decolorization rate and protein retention rate as the evaluation indexes, the influence of four independent variables including dosage of activated carbon, pH, decolorization temperature and decolorization time on the decolorization effect were investigated respectively. On the basis of single factor experiment, three independent variables including dosage of activated carbon, pH and decolorization time were optimized by the response surface methodology under the decolorization temperature of 50 ℃. Results showed that powdered activated carbon was more suitable for the removal of pigment from Antarctic krill peptides when compared with granular activated carbon, and the optimal conditions determined by response surface methodology were as follows: dosage of activated carbon 4.0%, pH1.5 and decolorization time 1.0 h. Under the optimal conditions, the decolorization rate was 82.19%±0.20% and the protein retention rate was 90.93%±2.28%. The decolorization treatment had no obvious effects on the proportion of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids in the amino acid compositions as well as the molecular weight distribution of Antarctic krill peptides. This research would provide scientific support for the development of high-quality Antarctic krill peptides products.
Preparation and Characterization of Yak Ghee Microcapsules
BI Chengming, XU Limei, QI Baiwei, CHEN Lianhong
2022, 43(23): 226-235.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030273
Abstract(22) HTML(7) PDF(6)
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In order to improve the oxidation resistance of traditional yak ghee, extend the shelf life, the yak ghee was embedded in gum Arabic and gelatin by complex coacervation method to prepare yak ghee microcapsules. The optimal preparation technology was obtained via single factor and orthogonal experiment with embedding rate as an index, and the physical and chemical properties, morphology structure, stability and properties in simulate gastrointestinal digestion were also investigated. The results showed that the best parameters of yak ghee microcapsules were as follows: Core-to-wall ratio was 1:1.5, mass fraction of wall material was 1.5%, complex coacervation pH was 4.2, the complex coacervation temperature was 40 ℃, and encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules was 81.39%. The average particle size, moisture content, solubility and angle of repose were 19.728 μm, 3.62%, 96.48% and 37.7°, respectively. Scanning electron microscope and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the surface of yak ghee microcapsules was smooth, the morphology was irregular, and yak ghee was successfully embedded in wall materials. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis proved that yak ghee microcapsules possessed good thermal stability. In addition, the release of yak ghee microcapsules could be controlled in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, and the release rate in simulated intestinal fluid was 99.74%. Storage experiments exhibited that microencapsulation could slow down the oxidation rate of yak ghee and prolong the shelf life. This study will help provide theoretical basis for improving the bioavailability of yak ghee.
Effects of Egg Marinating on the Edible Quality of Three Roast Meat Loaves
ZHAO Xiaoru, LI Beilei, HUA Siyu, RAN Qiannan, AYIBOTA∙SHATEFUALEDE, LIU Sihui, REN Xiaopu, PENG Zengqi
2022, 43(23): 236-244.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030275
Abstract(16) HTML(6) PDF(6)
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To analyze systematically the effects of marinated in eggs on edible quality of different meats during cooking of several traditional Chinese dishes, marinated in whole egg or egg white, and different egg white addition were chosen to analyze the effects on the edible quality of pork patties, beef patties, and lamb patties. The results showed that, at the addition of 10% and marinated for 30 min, when marinated in egg white, the water content of the pork patties and lamb patties were significantly increased (P<0.05), while the cooking loss, shear forces and hardness values were significantly reduced (P<0.05), indicated that the edible quality of the two meat loaves were effectively improved. However, marinated in whole egg was more suitable for the beef patties, which to a certain extent, improved its edible quality. The effects of different egg white additions on edible qualities of three meat loaves were different. When marinated for 30 min, 10% of egg white addition was suitable for the pork patties and lamb patties, while 5% was more suitable for beef patties. Under these conditions, the water holding capacity of the meat loaves was excellent, and the tenderness, color, and texture characteristics were preferred, which were suitable for promotion to use as a best addition condition for egg white marinating in the daily cooking process. The present study provides the theoretical support for the egg marinating conditions before cooking in traditional Chinese meat dishes.
Optimization of Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from Olea europaea L. Leaves and Its Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity
REN Yijie, ZHAO Xiaoliang, WANG Baozhong, XIANG Zijun, YANG Chaofu, WANG Haili, MA Junyi, ZHANG Weijie
2022, 43(23): 245-251.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030302
Abstract(28) HTML(9) PDF(12)
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In order to increase the development and utilization value of polysaccharides from Olea europaea L. leaves, the extraction process of polysaccharides from Olea europaea L. leaves (OLP) was optimized by orthogonal experiment, the molecular weight was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (HPGPC-MALLS), and the monosaccharide composition of OLP was analyzed by PMP pre-column derivatization and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were material-liquid ratio of 1:27.5 g/mL, extraction temperature of 95 ℃ and extraction time of 3.5 h. Under these conditions, the yield of OLP was 2.75%. The average weight molecular weight (Mw) of OLP was 25.36 kDa, the average number molecular weight (Mn) was 19.32 kDa, and the polydispersity was 1.313. OLP was mainly composed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal) and galactose amino (GalN), but also contains rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), xylose (Xyl), mannose (Man) and glucosamine (GlcN), and the relative molar ratio of monosaccharide was 56.2:15.9:10.3:8.3:5.9:2.6:0.5:0.3. The results showed that OLP had good antioxidant activity, with IC50 of 0.422, 0.302 and 0.268 mg/mL for hydroxyl free radical, superoxide anion free radical and DPPH free radical, respectively. The optimum technology of OLP is simple, the yield is high, and the antioxidant activity is good, which provides an essential reference for the further research, development and utilization of OLP.
Analysis on Antioxidant Activity and Composition of Eggshell Membrane Peptides Prepared by Extrution and Enzymatic Hydrolysis
GU Luping, ZHANG Yu, LI Junhua, CHANG Cuihua, YANG Yanjun, SU Yujie
2022, 43(23): 252-258.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060043
Abstract(58) HTML(14) PDF(28)
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In this study, the eggshell membrane peptides were prepared using a two-step process involved extrution and enzymatic hydrolysis. The process parameters were determined by evaluation of the total nitrogen recovery, D-glucuronic acid yield and antioxidant activity. The optimum extrution process were 140 ℃ (temperature), 100 r/min (screw rotation speed) and 20% (moisture content). And the optimum conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were 6 h (time), 12000 U/g (enzyme amount) and 55 ℃ (temperature). Under these conditions, the total nitrogen recovery and D-glucuronic acid yield were 60.8% and 12.4 mg/g, respectively. The ABTS, OH free radical scavenging ability and Fe2+ chelating ability of the shell membrane peptides were 29.46% (0.1 mg/mL), 26.58% (5 mg/mL) and 50.25% (0.4 mg/mL), respectively. And their cellular antioxidant activity reached 65% (10 μg/mL). Results on the molecular mass distribution indicated that the main components were oligopeptides (252~2435 Da), accounting for 81.8%. Analysis on the amino acid composition suggested a high level of Asp and Glu in the peptides, and the content of amino acids related with antioxidant activity was 44.70 g/100 g protein. And thus, the shell membrane peptides have great potentials as natural antioxidants in the field of food, healthy product and cosmetic.
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Packaging and Machinery
Effects of Zein Nanoparticles Loaded with Litsea cubeba Oil on the Structure and Properties of Gelatin Films
XIA Yuting, LOU Shangrong, WANG Yan, WEN Mengting, NI Xuewen
2022, 43(23): 259-266.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020062
Abstract(22) HTML(8) PDF(6)
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In this paper, gelatin-based blend films integrated with zein nanoparticles loaded with Litsea cubeba oil were prepared by solution casting using gelatin, zein and Litsea cubeba oil as film-forming substrates. The effects of nanoparticles incorporation on the opacity, microstructure, thermal stability, mechanical properties, hydrophobicity, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the blend films were investigated. The results showed that there was hydrogen bonds interaction and good compatibility between nanoparticles and gelatin. With increasing nanoparticles addition, the transparency of the blend films decreased significantly, and their hydrophobicity and antioxidant property were significantly improved (P<0.05). The blend films had obvious antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and their inhibition zone diameters were (9.17~10.00) mm and (10.02~11.10) mm, respectively. When the content of nanoparticles dispersion was 30% (v/v), the cross section of the blend film was the densest, and the blend film exhibited the best thermal stability and the greatest elongation at break. This study provides valuable suggestions for the development of food active packaging materials containing Litsea cubeba oil.
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Analysis and Determination
Analysis on the Difference of Quality Characteristics of Different Flour Flow of Wheat Milling System
GUO Jiabao, ZHAO Yankun, GAO Zhenxian, QI Maoqian, ZHANG Guocong, BAN Jinfu
2022, 43(23): 267-275.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010007
Abstract(30) HTML(15) PDF(8)
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The purpose of this research was to determine wheat quality characteristics of individual flour flow, to better define their functional characteristics in flour blending, and to develop patent flour with certain quality specifications. In this study, flour whiteness, wet gluten content, protein content, starch pasting properties, farinograms parameters, and extensograms parameters were investigated among the 39 individual flour flows. The quality differences were assayed by principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the whiteness and starch pasting properties of the former streams of core flour were generally higher than those of other flour flow; The starch pasting properties, stabilization time and farinograph quality index of the latter break streams of core flour were generally lower than those of other mill streams; The dough development time, stabilization time, farinograph quality index, extensibility area and extensibility of the flour from break system were higher than those of other mill streams; The content of protein and gluten in the flour from break system and re-sieve flour was generally higher than that in core flour. Principal component analysis showed that the first four principal components contributed 87.6321% of cumulative variance, and basically synthesize most information of flour quality characteristics. According to the quality characteristics of flour, the flour sample in 39 individual flour flows can be divided into four categories by cluster analysis. The first category comprises 18 flour flows, the second category comprises 12 flour flows, the third category comprises 5 flour flows and the fourth category comprises 4 flour flows. The results can be used as a reference and basis for developing patent flour with certain quality specifications in the commercial mills.
Comparative Analysis of Nutrient Composition in the Muscle of Penaeus monodon in Different Culture Models
CUI Xi, WANG Wei, XIE Yitao, CHEN Qiang, CAI Zhangyin, HUANG Yongchun
2022, 43(23): 276-281.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010148
Abstract(24) HTML(19) PDF(4)
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The purpose of this study was to explore the composition of muscle nutrients in different culture models of P. monodon, and to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent industrial finishing and select the appropriate model of P. monodon according to the needs. Farming in low-salt soil ponds (salinity: 8.3‰, referred to as low-salt soil pond group), low-salt intensive pond culture (salinity: 7.8‰, referred to as low-salt intensive pond group) and high-salt intensive pond (salinity: 23.4‰, referred to as high-salt group) ,the P. monodon under three culture modes were tested, and the nutritional differences of the muscles of P. monodon under different cultivation modes were analyzed and compared through the analysis and comparison of muscle nutrients. The results showed that in terms of conventional nutrients, the muscle water content of P. monodon in the high-salt group was significantly lower than that of the low-salt intensive pond group and the low-salt soil pond group (P<0.05), the crude protein content of the low-salt intensive pond group was significantly lower than that of the high-salt group and the low-salt soil pond group (P<0.05), the high-salt group had the highest crude fat, ash content, significantly different from the other two groups (P<0.05). In terms of amino acid composition, the muscles of P. monodon raised in the three breeding modes all contain 17 amino acids. The high-salt group of P. monodon muscle had the highest content of essential amino acids, delicious+sweet amino acid content, and total amino acids. In terms of the evaluation of essential amino acids, the total essential amino acids (2336.27 mg/g N) and essential amino acid index (76.15) of the muscle of P. monodon in the high-salt group were the highest, followed by the low-salt intensive pond group, and the low-salt soil pond group were the lowest. In terms of fatty acid composition, a total of 17 fatty acids were detected. Under the three culture modes, the content of C16:0 (palmitic acid) in the muscle of P. monodon was the highest, and the content of EPA+DHA was the highest in the high-salt group. The results showed that the muscle nutrients of P. monodon under the high-salt intensive pond culture model are complete, with high edible value.
Study on Aroma Components of Canarium album of Different Cultivars Based on HS-SPME-GC-MS
ZHENG Zonghao, ZHANG Xiangzheng, FU Fanghao, SUN Xing, PAN Tengfei, GUO Zhixiong, SHE Wenqin
2022, 43(23): 282-290.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020244
Abstract(34) HTML(8) PDF(14)
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Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to detect and analyze the aroma of Canarium album of different cultivars to explore the characteristics of aroma components. The results showed that a total of 56 aroma compounds were detected in 9 kinds of C. album of different cultivars, all of which were mainly olefinic substances, accounting for 78.51%~89.34% of the content of the total aroma components of each variety. α-pinene, β-pinene, caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and myrcene were the main aroma components. These aroma substances laid the foundation for the aroma of C. album. Among them, caryophyllene was a relatively high content and stable existence in various cultivars. There were also differences in odor activity value (OAV) among different varieties of C. album. Pinene was an important component of the aroma characteristics of C. album of these nine varieties, and the aroma types were pine oily and woody. There are differences in aroma substances and substance contents among different C. album varieties, and the research results can provide a basis for later C. album aroma mechanism research, breeding, promotion and quality innovation.
Volatile Flavor Compositions and the Odorant Feature Analysis of Four Microalgae
GUO Guixiao, SU Weiming, YUE Yao, LI Yanqun, HU Xueqiong
2022, 43(23): 291-300.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030151
Abstract(25) HTML(3) PDF(9)
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Objective: Spirulina platensis, Neochloris oleoabundans, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Isochrysis zhanjiangensis are common microalgae for food and feed. Their odors can affect the flavor of foods made from the aquaculture and farm animals through the food-chain transfer. This study aimed at analyzing the flavor characteristics of these four microalgae to provide fundamental data for the further researches of the relative foods. Methods: HS-SPME-GC-MS and electronic nose techniques were applied to identify the volatile compounds and the flavor profiles of the microalgae were analyzed thereafter. Results: In the four microalgae mentioned above, 33, 35, 23 and 29 volatile compounds were identified respectively. The results showed that hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal and hexanal were the main compounds in S. platensis contributing to its grassy, earthy and fatty odor; (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, octanal, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal and hexanol were the key volatile compounds in N. oleoabundans and gave it a flavor feature of fatty, earthy, fishy and grassy note; heptanal, naphthalene, octanal, hexanal and 1-octen-3-ol were the main volatile compounds in P. tricornutum contributing to its fatty odor; (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanol, hexanal and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal were the primary volatile substances in I. zhanjiangensis giving it fatty, grassy and fishy odor. Conclusion: Hexanal, hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol and olefin/diolefin aldehyde with 7~10 carbon atoms are the main odorous compounds in the four microalgae, contributing to their grassy, earthy, fishy and fatty odorous feature.
Quality and Flavor Changes of Bonito Back Meat during Steaming
DAI Zhenting, ZHOU Huimin, YIN Zesheng, ZHOU Yu, CHEN Shunsheng
2022, 43(23): 301-309.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030259
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The changes of quality and flavor of bonito back meat during steaming were analyzed by mass loss rate, pH, texture, the content of myofibrillar protein and sarcoplasmic protein, moisture distribution, the content of free amino acid and volatile flavor substances and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the mass loss rate increased rapidly from 0 to 6 min and then stabilized, while the pH increased as a whole. The hardness showed two peaks. The elasticity reached 2.20 mm when steaming for 8 min, the content of myofibrillar protein and sarcoplasmic protein decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 0 to 6 min and then stabilized. The content of bound water decreased continuously, while the content of free water increased and then decreased. Overall, the content of glutamic acid and total free amino acid showed the same trend, which increased first and then decreased with steaming time. Steaming for 6 min and 8 min, the total amount of free amino acid up to 3369.03 and 3438.76 mg/100 g, respectively. The results of GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) showed that the relative content of heptanal and nonanal decreased gradually during the steaming process, which possessed fish flavor, and the contents of the above aldehydes were only 1.14% and 1.69% after steaming for 8 min, respectively. Moreover, sensory evaluation showed that the overall score was the highest when steaming for 8 min. Therefore, the quality and flavor of bonito pieces were the best for steaming 6~8 min.
Analysis of Polyphenols from Lemon Peel and Its Effect on Glucose Metabolism in Insulin-resistant HepG2 Cells
WANG Ruixue, ZHANG Yun, CUI Yanwei, FU Hongyan, FANG Yiming, ZHANG Yanjun, CHU Zhong
2022, 43(23): 310-317.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030281
Abstract(31) HTML(8) PDF(19)
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Objective: To explore the composition of limon peel polyphenols (LPP) and its influence on glucose metabolism in insulin resistance (IR) HepG2 cells. Methods: The composition of LPP was analyzed by HPLC-QTOF-MS. HepG2 cells were used to establish insulin resistance model, IR-HepG2 cells were treated with LPP, and the effect of LPP on glucose metabolism was preliminarily investigated by measuring glucose consumption. By determining glycogen content and hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activities to explore the pathway of LPP regulating glucose metabolism in cells. Results: Twelve compounds were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS, mainly flavonoids and their glycosides. In the study of glucose metabolism, compared with the model group, the concentration of 0.1~2 mg/mL lemon peel polyphenols significantly increased glucose consumption (P<0.05), and the ability to increase the glycogen content and HK and PK activities and decrease the PEPCK and G6Pase activity of IR-HepG2 cells was closest to metformin-positive control when the concentration of lemon peel polyphenols was 0.5 mg/mL. Conclusion: Lemon peel polyphenols can reduce IR-HepG2 cell state of insulin resistance, and can promote glycogen synthesis, improve the glycolytic key enzyme activity, reduce sugar dysplasia regulate sugar metabolism enzyme activity way, it provides data support for the subsequent research in the body, and provides the theoretical basis for the future development of functional products.
Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Aged Fengxiang Crude Baijiu Based on GC-MS and GC-IMS
LIU Lili, YANG Hui, JING Xiong, ZHANG Yafang, XU Chen, YAN Zongke, QI Yaohua
2022, 43(23): 318-327.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040054
Abstract(57) HTML(17) PDF(13)
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Targeted at the aged Fengxiang crude Baijiu stored in Jiuhai, a container for Chinese Baijiu, this paper adopted the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) to analyze the changes of volatile substances in the Fengxiang Baijiu. The results indicated that 85 compounds were detected by GC-MS, including 41 esters, 10 acids, 17 alcohols, and some compounds with high molecular weight. During storage, the content of esters decreased obviously, that of acids increased, and that of higher fatty acid esters such as ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, elaidic acid ethyl ester, and stearic acid ethyl ester, and phenylethyl alcohol showed a linear growth. In contrast, a total of 47 compounds, dominated by 23 esters and 14 aldehydes and ketones, were identified by GC-IMS, as it was more sensitive to substances with small molecules. It was found that the content of dipropyl sulfide, isopentane, diacetyl, etc., increased with time. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the two techniques showed that there were significant differences between aged crude Baijiu. Combining the above two techniques, a change law of the volatile components in aged Fengxiang crude Baijiu was derived, the content of acids increased, that of esters declined, and that of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, elaidic acid ethyl ester, stearic acid ethyl ester, phenylethyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and lactic acid grew. It was expected that the results of this paper could provide a theoretical basis for the establishment of the aging system of Fengxiang Baijiu.
Determination of Thymol in Honey by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector
QIAN Zhenjie, ZENG Xi, CHEN Jing, ZHAO Yue, YOU Shuzhu, HE Yongxin, FENG Jiawang
2022, 43(23): 328-333.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070302
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The presented method was developed to determine the concentration of thymol residues in honey by ultra performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The thymol in honey was extracted by 40% acetonitrile-water solution. After centrifugation and filtration, the separation of thymol was performed on an Accucore aQ liquid chromatography column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with the gradient elution of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phases, and quantitated by external standard method with fluoresce detector (excitation wavelength 274 nm, emission wavelength 297 nm). A good linear relationship (R2=0.9999) was observed with concentration ranging from 0.01 μg/mL to 3.00 μg/mL. The average recovery of thymol was from 87.4% to 106.9%, the coefficient of variation was between 0.7% and 7.3%, and the limit of quantification was 0.10 mg/kg. The developed method was applied to determine residual thymol in 48 commercial honey samples, and the thylmol was only detected in one sample. The presented method is simple, quick, reliable, and suitable to be used for batch screening and quantitative determination of residual thymol in honey.
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Storage and Preservation
Cryoprotective Effect of Tara Gum on Myofibrillar Protein from Grass Carp during Frozen Storage
ZHANG Xia, ZHANG Lingzhi, ZHANG Yuqi, GUO Juan, DING Yuqin
2022, 43(23): 334-340.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020253
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To investigate the cryoprotective effect of tara gum on myofibrillar proteins, the influences of tara gum on the freezing curve of myofibrillar proteins of grass carp were studied using a commercial cryoprotectant (4% sucrose+4% sorbitol) as a control in this study. The effects of tara gum on the freezing stability of myofibrillar proteins during frozen storage (0~28 days) were investigated by assessing Ca2+-ATPase activity, sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, endogenous fluorescence spectra and water mobility. The results showed that the freezing temperature of myofibrillar proteins solution added with 1% tara gum and commercial cryoprotectant were −8.3 ℃ and −7.3 ℃, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the control (−5.5 ℃). After 28 d of frozen storage, the Ca2+-ATPase activity, total sulfhydryl content, and active sulfhydryl content of myofibrillar proteins with the addition of 1% tara gum and commercial cryoprotectant decreased by 45.69% and 45.17%, 24.49% and 42.28%, 25.13% and 39.79%, and the surface hydrophobicity increased by 176.00% and 122.23%, respectively. The changes were significantly lower than those of the blank control. Additionally, the results of LF-NMR showed that the addition of 1% gum and commercial cryoprotectant significantly inhibited the increase of water mobility of myofibrillar protein solution after thawing. Therefore, the 1% tara gum could enhance the stability of myofibrillar proteins of grass carp during frozen storage.
Effect of Melatonin Coupling with Eugenol Treatment on Storage Quality of Red Amygdalus persica
ZHAO Zhibing, HUANG Tingting, LÜ Jiahan, DU Xiaoji, ZHANG Changfeng, ZHANG Yu, CAO Sen
2022, 43(23): 341-346.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070080
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In order to study the changes of storage quality of red Amygdalus persica treated with melatonin and eugenol, the red Amygdalus persica was used as the experimental material in this experiment. Different treatments (0.5 mmol/L melatonin treatment; 50 µL/L eugenol treatment; 0.5 mmol/L melatonin+50 µL/L eugenol treatment) were used to soak the red Amygdalus persica for 5 min. After treatment, it was naturally dried and stored at a temperature of (0.5±0.5) ℃ to study the quality changes of red Amygdalus persica during storage. The results showed that: Melatonin combined with eugenol treatment could effectively reduce fruit decay rate and respiratory intensity, and delay the decline of firmness, soluble solid content, titratable acid content and total phenol content, effectively maintained SOD activity, APX and PPO activity. At 60 days of storage, the fruit decay rate of melatonin combined with eugenol group was only 14.65%, while that of CK group, melatonin group and eugenol group were 36.72%, 25.63% and 22.49% respectively. In conclusion, melatonin combined with eugenol treatment could delay fruit softening, inhibit the decline of fruit quality and significantly prolong the storage period of fruits.
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Nutrition and Healthcare
Effects of Fish Oil Combined with Cisplatin on HEK293 Cells and A549 Cells
DU Yuemei, LIU Yunfan, QIN Fei, GAO Liping
2022, 43(23): 347-352.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120173
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Objective: To explore the effect of fish oil on the activity of cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum (Ⅱ) (CDDP) against A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and its protective effect on HEK293 cells damaged by CDDP. Methods: A549 and HEK293 cells were cultured in vitro, and the cells were divided into control group, CDDP group, fish oil group, fish oil+CDDP group; the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of fish oil, and CDDP injury models of CDDP group and fish oil+CDDP group were established at the same time. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 method, and the kits were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) content, direduced glutathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in HEK293 cells. Results: Fish oil at a concentration of 4~16 mg/L could significantly inhibit the cytotoxicity of HEK293 cells caused by CDDP (P<0.05). Fish oil at a concentration of 4 mg/L had the best protective effect, and fish oil at this concentration could significantly inhibit CDDP (20 mg/L) decreased GSH content and increased MDA content (P<0.05). When the fish oil concentration was ≥32 mg/L, the inhibitory effect of CDDP on A549 cells was significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Conclusion: Within a certain concentration range, fish oil has a certain protective effect on CDDP-induced damage to HEK293 of human embryonic kidney cells. Low-concentration fish oil has no obvious effect on the inhibitory effect of CDDP-induced A549 cells, and high-concentration fish oil enhances the anti-cancer effect of CDDP.
Effects of Low Glycemic Index Noodles on Glucose/Lipid Metabolism in Diabetic Mice
YU Mengling, ZHANG Sanshan, ZHANG Qiao, HE Yujie, LI Xian, LEI Ji
2022, 43(23): 353-359.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020071
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of low-glycemic index (GI) noodles on improving glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods: Diabetic male Kunming mice were induced by STZ, the intervention group was fed with low GI noodles for 7 weeks, the glucose and lipid metabolism index were measured, and compared with the model control group fed with normal noodles. Results: Compared with the diabetic mice in the model group, the body weight, serum insulin (INS) and liver glycogen levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in the intervention group. The glycated serum proteins (GSP), fasting glucose and organ index were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Oral glucose tolerance, liver and pancreatic tissue damage improved significantly (P<0.05), lipid levels showed a trend of improvement. Conclusion: Low GI noodles had an improvement effect on hyperglycemia symptoms and lipid metabolism disorders in diabetic mice, which could provide some reference for the development and application of low GI food.
Anti-glioma Effect and Mechanism of Andrographolide on Human U251 Glioma Cells
CHEN Weihong, WU Qiqi, HUANG Ju, LONG Wenqing, JIANG Yanping, ZHOU Yuehan
2022, 43(23): 360-370.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020202
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Objective: To investigate the anti-glioma effect and mechanism of AND on human glioma U251 cells via network pharmacology, bioinformatics and in vitro experiments. Methods: Network pharmacology was used to predict glioma-related targets based on the structure of AND. The hub genes were selected by bioinformatics, analyzed by gene ontology (GO) molecular function and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analysis (KEGG) to determine their related signaling pathways. Molecular docking was conducted to study the binding activity of AND with the above targets. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed, analyzing the expression differences of hub genes and the Kaplan-Meier survival curve by comparing glioma samples with normal samples. On the above basis, the effects of AND on the growth and morphological changes of human glioma U251 cells were observed, the effects of AND on the PI3K/AKT pathway were detected. Results: A total of 40 glioma related targets of AND were identified by network pharmacology, and 10 hub genes were screened out by bioinformatics method. AND had high binding activity to hub genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the hub genes were related to biological processes such as the regulation of neuronal apoptosis, reactive oxygen metabolism, and were related to PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. GSEA enrichment analysis suggested that PI3K/AKT-mTOR and other signaling pathways were significantly up-regulated in glioma cells. Among the hub genes, HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1, RHOA, CDK2 and MET showed significant differences between glioma samples and normal samples. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that low expression of genes like BCL2L1, CDK2, SOD2 and MET had higher survival rates. In the in vitro studies, AND inhibited the growth of U251 cells in both time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. After the administration of AND, U251 cells became round and shriveled, which significantly decreased the expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT to the PI3K/AKT pathway. Conclusion: AND can inhibit the proliferation of human glioma U251 cells, which mechanism is related to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Study on Antioxidant Activity of Tricholoma matsutake Polysaccharide in Vitro and Its Effect on Mice Damaged by Ethanol Oxidation
SHEN Chenglong, CHEN Yifan, ZENG Yingjie, CHEN Lianhong
2022, 43(23): 371-377.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020248
Abstract(42) HTML(8) PDF(6)
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In order to study the antioxidant activity of Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides (TMP), its antioxidant capacity in vitro was investigated using superoxide anion radical (O2 · ) scavenging capacity, total reducing capacity and ABTS radical scavenging capacity as indicators; and then the mouse model of ethanol oxidative damage was established, and the antioxidant activity of Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides in vivo were measured by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in the serum of mice and the activity of catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the liver. In vitro antioxidant results showed that Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides had better scavenging ability on superoxide anion free radical and ABTS free radical, and the scavenging rate reached 56.67% and 96.60% when the concentration was 1 mg/mL. However, the total reducing ability of Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides was not obvious. When the concentration was 1 mg/mL, the absorbance value could reach 0.163. Animal experiment results showed that after four weeks of continuous gastric administration, compared with the model control group, Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides could significantly reduce ALT, AST and AKP viability in mice serum (P<0.05); it also significantly increased the levels of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px in liver (P<0.05), when the content of MDA was significantly reduced (P<0.05). All these indicators showed a dose-response relationship. The experimental results showed that Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides had certain antioxidant activity, hoping to provide ideas for the subsequent development and application of Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharides.
Study on Immune-enhancing Activity of Gonad Saponins from Female of Apostichopus japonicus
ZHONG Jingshi, WANG Gongming, ZHANG Jian, LIU Fang, JING Yuexin, WANG Yixin
2022, 43(23): 378-386.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030289
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Objective: Taking gonad saponins from female of Apostichopus japonicus (AGS) as the research object to explore its immune-enhancing activity. Methods: The immunoregulatory activity of AGS in vitro was studied by measuring the phagocytosis and cytokines of macrophages. Thereafter the immunoregulatory activity of AGS in immunocompromised mice was analyzed by measuring thymus and spleen index, carbon clearance index and phagocytic index, proliferation activity of peritoneal macrophages, spleen cells, NK cell activity, T lymphocyte subsets level and serum cytokines of mice. Results: In vitro experiments showed that AGS could improve the phagocytic ability of macrophages and enhance the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, and each group was significantly different from the normal group (P<0.05). In vivo experiments showed that compared with model group, AGS in middle dose group and high dose group could significantly increase thymus and spleen index, carbon clearance index and phagocytosis index (P<0.05), significantly enhance the proliferation activity of peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells (P<0.05), significantly enhance the activity of NK cells (P<0.05), significantly increase the level of CD4+/CD8+ (P<0.05), and significantly promote the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P<0.05). Conclusion: AGS exhibits immune-enhancing activity both in vitro and in vivo.
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Reviews
Research Progress of Calcium Salt Regulating Beef Quality Factors and Its Application
YANG Xiaodong, ZHANG Yang, LI Wanjun, BAI Yueyu, YAN Xiangmin, LI Hongbo, XIE Peng, LEI Yuanhua, WANG Xu, HU Changhong, SUN Baozhong, ZHANG Songshan
2022, 43(23): 387-393.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110041
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Tenderness and meat color are the two most important factors affecting consumers to buy beef, but also directly affect the quality of beef. In order to improve the quality of meat tenderness and meat color, many methods have been developed. Calcium salt rejuvenation method is regarded as an economical and efficient method, in the appropriate amount of addition, it can significantly improve the meat color. However, there is still relatively little research on the mechanism and application of different calcium salts in regulating beef quality improvement, which hinders the further development of calcium salt tenderization method. Therefore, this paper reviews the way of calcium salt addition, the improvement factors of beef quality regulation and the application of calcium salt in beef, in order to provide reference significance for the further development of calcium salt in the field of meat products.
A Review on Prolamin-based Colloidal Particles for the Formation of Pickering Emulsion and Applications
ZHANG Jian, ZHAO Xueqin, ZHANG Wengang, LIU Liping, ZHANG Huien
2022, 43(23): 394-400.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110046
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Prolamin-based nanoparticles are promising candidates for the preparation and stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Prolamin-based binary/ternary complexes nanoparticles, which have stable physicochemical properties and superior functionality, are formed by combining prolamin with polysaccharides, polyphenols, and water-soluble proteins. The research and development of Prolamin-based nanoparticles with different complexes nanoparticle is one of the hotspots in the field of Pickering emulsions because of their significant advantages such as natural sources, non-toxicity, acceptance in the food industry, and good emulsion stabilization abilities. This review summarized the recent research practices in developing prolamin-based nanoparticles stabilized Pickering emulsions. And it focused on the applications of prolamin-based particles and the effect of modification on the properties of prolamin-based particles, order to provide theoretical and technical reference for improving the processing adaptability of prolamin-based particles and processing. Finally, the current bottlenecks and future development direction of Pickering emulsion is summarized.
Research Progress of Changes of Pectase during the Storage of Fruits and Vegetables
XING Ying, XU Huaide
2022, 43(23): 401-407.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120001
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Pectin is the main component of the middle lamella of cell wall. The pectinase exists in the natural plant tissue, which can catalyze the decomposition of the pectin and disrupts the integrity of the cell wall, so the firmness of fruit and vegetable decrease. Ethylene, Ca2+ and temperature are important factors which affects the softening of fruits and vegetables during storage. The common storage methods include physical, chemical and biological preservation techniques, which have different mechanisms on the softening of fruits and vegetables. This paper focuses on the structure of pectin and the classification of pectinase, meanwhile the effect of common storage preservation technologies on pectinases is summarized, which can lay a theoretical foundation for the study of the inhibition of softening during the storage of fruits and vegetables.
Research Progress on Bioactive Ingredients, Biological Activity and Wall-breaking Technology of Bee Pollen
LI Lantao, WANG Hong, BAI Weidong, DONG Hao, LI Nanwei, XIAO Gengsheng, LIU Gongliang, LAI Qiuping
2022, 43(23): 408-417.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120164
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As one of the natural food, bee pollen is rich in a large number of bioactive components, including polysac-charides, proteins, lipids, and polyphenols, etc. Studies in vivo and in vitro have shown that bee pollen has the properties of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, liver protection, treatment of prostate diseases, weight loss, as well as anti-cancer, anti-atherosclerosis, and immunomodulatory properties. However, the complex structure of pollen wall partly limits the release of bioactive components and application of bee pollen. Thus studies on wall-breaking technology of bee pollen could solve these problems, and contribute to enhancement of biological activites. This review summarised the research progress on bioactive components, biological activity, and wall-breaking technology of bee pollen in recent years, which could provide information to development of high value-added products derived from bee poleen.
Research Progress on Composition, Extraction and Physiological Activity of Pea Polyphenols
WANG Jing, SONG Lianjun, MA Yan, HUANG Xianqing, QIAO Mingwu, WANG Shiming
2022, 43(23): 418-428.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120245
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Pea polyphenols are secondary metabolites widely existing in peas, mainly including flavonoids (populin, kaempferol, quercetin), phenolic acids (p-coumaric acid, erucic acid, ferulic acid) and tannins (catechins). The content, species and distribution of pea polyphenols depend on pea varieties, but they are affected by environment and inducing factors in the process of their growth. The extraction method of pea polyphenols has gradually changed from inefficient solvent extraction to microwave extraction technology with high efficiency and high extraction rate. The research on its physiological activity has gradually developed to the molecular and cellular level, and its application scope has gradually expanded to meat products, aquatic products, flour products and other industries. In order to further understand the chemical properties and potential utilization value of pea polyphenols, this paper expounds in detail the distribution of pea polyphenols, the factors affecting the types and content of pea polyphenols, the separation and extraction, physiological activity and its application in food industry, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development and research of pea polyphenols.
Research Progress on the Determination of Nitrite in Food
LI Hui, LI Li
2022, 43(23): 429-435.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010006
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Nitrite is commonly found in meat products, pickles, vegetables and other foods. Due to its toxicity the excessive ingestion of nitrite will harm to human health. Therefore, it is particularly important to apply a fast and reliable method to detect nitrite in food. This paper summarizes the pretreatment methods of food stuffs before detection, and reviews the common methods and the latest research progress of nitrite detection in food at home and abroad in recent years. The principle, detection limit, advantages and disadvantages of analysis of nitrite in food stuffs by spectrophotometry, chromatography, chemiluminescence methods, electrochemical methods and titration analysis methods are summarized in this paper. This paper aims to provide a reference for the scientific and accurate detection of nitrite in various foods.
Research Progress on Pharmacological Activities of Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone and Its Synthetic Precursors
WEI Jing, SONG Ruolan, CHEN Xiang, WANG Zhendong, DONG Ying, ZHONG Xiangjian, LÜ Fang, SHE Gaimei
2022, 43(23): 436-449.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010176
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Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a sweetener with non-toxic, highly sweet and low-calorie characteristics. It has abilities of adding sweetness, adding fragrance and masking the bitterness, together with modifying flavours, as well as pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic and has potential for development in the fields of food and pharmaceutical. NHDC is usually obtained by hydrogenated reduction of neohesperidin (NHP) after hydrolysis under alkaline conditions, while neohesperidin is synthesized from hesperidin (HSD) and naringenin (NRG), they are called as synthesis precursors of NHDC. The synthetic precursors of NHDC have various biological activities, including antioxidant, liver and kidney protection, antibacterial and improving gastrointestinal function, etc. The pharmacological effects of NHDC are characterized by slow development process, lack of research systems and lack of depth of mechanisms compared to other dihydrochalcone compounds. In this paper, we searches the scientific databases including SciFinder, Web of Science and CNKI with the keywords of NHDC and its synthetic precursors, and reads its relevant literature. The pharmacological activity is systematically discussed and synthetic precursors mechanism is summarized for the NHDC, which will provide reference for the further utilization and development of NHDC and produce high value-added products in future.
Formation of Potato Starch Gel and Influencing Factors of Its Quality-A Review
ZHANG Hongyuan, MU Taihua, MA Mengmei
2022, 43(23): 450-456.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010181
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Potato starch has been widely used in the processing of various gel products due to its high viscosity, easy gelatinization and high stability and transparency of starch paste. Environmental factors, such as temperature and pH, as well as edible components, such as salts, polysaccharides, and proteins exhibites different effects on the pasting properties of potato starch and the retrogradation properties, rheological properties and microstructure of starch gel, which in turn affects the quality of potato starch gel products. Based on the analysis of the formation mechanism of potato starch gel, the influence of different environmental factors and edible components on the quality characteristics of potato starch gel are summarized in this paper, and the interaction principles between different edible components and potato starch molecules are revealed. The objective is to provide reference for the research and industrial production of high-quality, high-nutrition potato starch gel and its products.
Advances in Extraction and Functional Studies of Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides
ZHAO Ruoqi, CHENG Yongxia, SONG Lianjun, MA Yan, HUANG Xianqing, QIAO Mingwu
2022, 43(23): 457-466.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020015
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Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are 1, 6-galactosyl extensions of α-sucrose, and are plant non-structural carbohydrates, mainly including raffinose, stachyose and verbasose, which are commonly found in the plant kingdom middle. Among them, it is more common in legumes, Rehmannia glutinosa, Stachys japonica Miq., Stachys sieboldii and other plants, and belongs to functional oligosaccharides. RFOs have great potential in functional food development due to their active functions of regulating intestinal flora, preventing inflammatory bowel disease, protecting liver and lowering blood sugar. This article mainly reviews the sources of RFOs, the current research on the relevant technologies of extraction, separation and purification of RFOs, and the function of RFOs, expecting to provide some theoretical reference for the development and utilization of RFOs and enable them to be better applied in functional food.
Research Progress in Glucose Enzyme-free Rapid Detection Technology
WANG Yan, CHENG Meijia, XIE Jinhui, LIU Tianjiao, LI Hongjia, XIN Jiaying
2022, 43(23): 467-476.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020019
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Glucose detection is particularly important in the food and medical industry. Electrochemical enzyme-free detection and visual detection are widely used in the food industry, biological detection, medical and health and other fields because of its fast, convenient measurement and simple operation. And it has become a hot topic for researchers. This paper summarizes the technology of enzyme-free fast glucose detection at home and abroad. The research progress of enzyme-free glucose sensing technology is reviewed. And the application of these technology is discussed. Among them, the construction simulation enzyme technology in the electrochemical and visual detection are extensive research, discusses their application in clinical medicine and food analysis glucose detection, and the future of glucose enzyme-free detection technology research direction is prospected, for the subsequent development research and application in medical and agricultural industry provides a theoretical basis.
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