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Effect of Bacillus velezensis Treatment on the Preservation Effect of Muskmelon and Protective Enzyme Activity
WANG Jingyi, ZUO Changgeng, NIU Xinxiang, GUAN Lihui, YANG Hongmei, CHU Min, WANG Ning, LIN Qing, LOU Kai, SHI Yingwu
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110250
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In order to explore the effects of antagonistic bacterium treatment on the preservation effect and protective enzyme activity of muskmelon, this study selected Xizhoumi 25 melon as the research object, and inoculated the melon surface with Bacillus velezensis BG-2 at 25 ℃ and 4 ℃. The colonization characteristics, preservation effect, Peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and Phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL) of antagonistic bacteria on melon surface during storage were determined. Under the conditions of 25 ℃ and 4 ℃, the number of antagonistic bacteria on melon surface increased firstly and then decreased. The fresh-keeping effect, pH and soluble solid content decreased of muskmelon inoculated with antagonistic bacteria were significantly better than those of control group. POD and PAL activities increased first and then decreased, PPO activity increased first and then decreased at room temperature, and slowly increased at 4 ℃. At 25 ℃, the enzyme activity of POD, PAL and PPO in antagonistic treatment group was the highest on the 20th day, and the highest on the 10th day; Under 4 ℃, POD and PAL activity were the highest on the 20th day. The highest enzyme activity on the 40th day of PPO treatment. The enzyme activity of the antagonistic bacterium treatment was always higher than pathogen treatment. Bacillus BG-2 could stably colony on the epidermal of muskmelon at both 25 ℃ and 4 ℃, inhibited the decaed of muskmelon during storage, delayed the decreased of pH, soluble solids content, POD, PPO and PAL enzyme activities, and the combinated of BG-2 and low temperature had better effect on the above. This study provided a theoretical basis for prolonged the storage period of Xinjiang muskmelon and provided technical support for the antagonistic bacterium effect of muskmelon after harvest.
Optimization of Enzymatic Preparation Technology of Antioxidant Peptide from Volvariella volvacea by Response Surface Methodology
WANG Yaoran, CHEN Mingjie, ZHA Lei, WEI Chenying, LI Zhiping, ZHAO Yan
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110073
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The antioxidant peptides were prepared from Volvariella volvacea protein by protease hydrolysis. Based on the single-factor test, the extraction conditions of antioxidant peptides from V. volvacea protein were optimized using response surface methodology. At the same time, peptides with different retention molecular weights were isolated by ultrafitration, and their antioxidant activity were detected through 2,2-dipheny1-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, Fe2+ chelating ability and reducing power. The results showed that the optimum enzyme for enzymatic hydrolysis was neutral protease, and the optimum process for antioxidant peptide was as follows: The enzymatic hydrolysis time was 3.70 h, the enzyme dosage was 3.81%, and the substrate mass concentration was 3.11 g/100 mL. Under the optimal enzymalysis conditions, DPPH free radical scavenging rate of the optimal hydrolysis products was 69.85%±2.52%. The F1 fraction with the lowest molecular weight (<3 kDa) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. DPPH free radical scavenging rate, Fe2+ chelating ability and reducing power of F1 were 78.81%±1.56%, 91.05%±1.65%, 0.47±0.02. The antioxidant peptides from V. volvacea protein can be explored as a potential natural antioxidant.
Optimization of Sturgeon Cartilage Products and Its Regulation on Human Chondrocyte Inflammation
LIU Hengge, XU Xinxing, BAI Fan, WANG Jinlin, GAO Ruichang, LIU Kang, ZHAO Yuanhui
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100051
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The purpose of this paper is to prepare a sturgeon cartilage product from sturgeon cartilage and explore its effect on inflammation of human chondrocytes. A kind of sturgeon cartilage product was prepared by thermal liquefaction of sturgeon cartilage and dragon tendon at high temperature and high pressure. The optimum preparation conditions were determined by single factor and orthogonal test. Human chondrocytes were cultured by preparing drug-containing serum and the effects of sturgeon cartilage products on Interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-induced cell inflammatory model were investigated by MTT, Alsinland staining and ELISA. The results showed that the best preparation conditions of sturgeon cartilage products were as follows: Hot liquefaction temperature was 120 ℃, hot liquefaction time was 20 min, boiling temperature was 80 ℃, boiling time was 30 min. Under this condition, the sensory score of the product was 59.69. The drug-containing serum of sturgeon cartilage products group had no cytotoxicity and could stimulate chondrocytes to secrete collagen and proteoglycan and other extracellular matrix. Meanwhile, the product could significantly increase the proliferation activity of inflammatory cells by 156% (P<0.05), and significantly inhibited the expression levels of NO, INOS, IL-6, COX-2 and PGE2 in the inflammatory chondrocytes (P<0.05).
Effects of Grain Moisture Content on Properties of Whole Flour of Buckwheat and Agriophyllum squarrosum
YU Yingtao, CAO Shaopan, XIAO Liuyang, HUANG Jipeng, ZHANG Jingru, HAN Lihong
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110218
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The effects of grain water content on the properties of sweet buckwheat and Agriophyllum squarrosum (A. squarrosum) flour were studied. The results showed that the starch content of whole buckwheat flour was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of whole A. squarrosum flour, while the protein, fat and crude fiber contents of buckwheat flour were significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of which. The grain size, oil absorption and expansion power of two kind flours increased with the increase of grain water content. The water absorption and elastic modulus of whole buckwheat flour decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase of grain water content, but the changes of the two characteristic values of A. squarrosum flour were opposite. Grain water content had no significant effect on damaged starch content of whole buckwheat flour, but the damaged starch content of whole A. squarrosum flour decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase of grain water content. The values of gelatinization viscosity and gel hardness of buckwheat flour were higher than that of whole A. squarrosum flour, while the viscoelasticity and enthalpy of buckwheat flour were lower than that of whole A. squarrosum flour. The difference of damaged starch content and grain size of whole A. squarrosum flour with different water content had significant (P<0.05) effects on its expansion degree, solubility, gelatinization characteristic value, gelatinization enthalpy and dough rheological properties. These results indicated that the properties of whole A. squarrosum flour were different from buckwheat flour, and the processing properties of whole A. squarrosum flour could be controlled by changing the grain water content. This study will provide theoretical support for the high-value utilization of A. squarrosum seeds as a new food resource and help ensure national food security.
Protective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol from Phyllanthus emblica Linn Leaves on Testicular Tissue Injury Induced by CS2 in Mice
LI Nan, LI Ruiting, ZHAO Xingwen, DENG Lihong, PU Hui, JIANG Yan
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120020
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Abstract: Objective: The protective effects of hydroxytyrosol from Phyllanthus emblica Linn leaves (PHT) on CS2-induced testicular injury in mice were studied. Methods: The experimental mice were randomly divided into control group (distilled water), CS2 exposure group (50 mg/m3) and PHT intervention groups (450, 150 and 50 mg/kg). The exposure group and intervention group were exposed to static inhalation for 2 hours a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The intervention group received PHT intragastric intervention every day. The exposure group and the control group were perfused with distilled water. After 4 weeks, the testicular organ coefficient, sperm quality, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in testicular homogenate were tested, and the pathological sections of testis were observed. Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related factors in testis. Results: After the intervention, the testicular organ coefficients of mice in the medium and high-dose PHT groups were higher than those in the CS2 group (P<0.01). There was no statistical difference between high-dose PHT group and control group (P>0.05); The sperm count and sperm motility in each PHT dose group were higher than those in the CS2 group (P<0.01), but lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The sperm deformity rate of each PHT dose group was lower than that of CS2 group (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference between high-dose PHT group and control group (P>0.05). The pathological sections of testis showed that the morphology of testis in each PHT dose group was improved compared with CS2 group. No significant difference was observed under microscope between the high-dose PHT group and the control group; The expression of oxidative stress and apoptosis related factor protein showed that MDA content in testis of each PHT dose group was lower than that of CS2 group (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference between high-dose PHT group and control group (P>0.05); The activity of SOD and GSH-Px in testis tissue of each PHT dose group was higher than that of CS2 group (P<0.05), but lower than that of control group (P<0.01); The expression of Bax and Caspase-3 in testis tissue of each PHT dose group was lower than that of CS2 group, the expression of Bcl-2 was increased (P<0.01), and there was difference between each PHT dose group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: CS2 can induce oxidative damage of testis in mice, and PHT can antagonize the testicular tissue damage induced by CS2. The mechanism may be related to the strong antioxidant activity of PHT, which maintains the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, alleviates the oxidative damage and reduces the formation of apoptotic factors.
Research on Anti-aging Function and Mechanism of Pond Turtle Protein-derived Peptides on Drosophila melanogaster
WU Junhao, WANG Jing, KHO Sethykun, QIN Chuan, WANG Qianqian, YU Peng, FENG Fengqin
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110057
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Objective: To explore the anti-aging function and mechanism of pond turtle protein-derived peptides (PTPDP) on Drosophila melanogaster. Methods: PTPDP were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of turtle meat. Nutrients content, molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition of PTPDP were determined. D. melanogaster were fed with 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% PTPDP. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), along with the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to analyze the anti-aging function of PTPDP. The anti-aging mechanism was explored by measuring the expression of antioxidant genes (Sod1, Sod2 and Cat) and lifespan-related genes (mth and Rpn11) in female D. melanogaster fed with 0.8% PTPDP. Results: The enzymatic hydrolysis products of turtle meat were mainly composed of small molecule peptides less than 1000 Da. PTPDP were rich in amino acids with antioxidant activity, such as glycine, glutamic acid and proline. In the survival experiment, the average lifespans of female and male D. melanogaster were significantly prolonged by 18.92% and 9.37% (P<0.01), respectively. In the antioxidant activity experiment, the SOD activity of female and male D. melanogaster increased significantly by 7.13% and 7.37% (P<0.05); the CAT activity of female and male D. melanogaster increased significantly by 42.14% and 84.66% (P<0.01); the MDA content of female and male D. melanogaster decreased significantly by 22.22% and 23.08% (P<0.05). In female D. melanogaster fed with 0.8% PTPDP, the expression of anti-oxidant related genes Sod1, Sod2 (P<0.05) and Cat (P<0.01) were significantly up-regulated, and genes (mth and Rpn11) related to lifespan also showed different degrees of regulation (P<0.01). Conclusion: PTPDP increase the antioxidant activity of D. melanogaster by affecting the expression of antioxidant genes and lifespan-related genes, thereby prolonging the lifespan of D. melanogaster. This mechanism implies that PTPDP has potential anti-aging effects.
Purification, Identification and Polyclonal Antibody Development for Cow’s Milk Major Allergen αS1-Casein
HE Shengfa, LONG Caiyun, WANG Jiao, XIONG Meng, ZHAO Jiangqiang, YAN Yan, DONG Yaping, LI Xin, CHEN Hongbing
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110034
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Objective: To purify and comprehensive identify αS1-casein from bovine caseins and prepare rabbit polyclonal antibody against αS1-casein. Method: DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow anion exchange chromatography was used to separate and purify αS1-casein. The physicochemical property (isoelectric point and protein content), immunological technique and mass spectrometry were used to comprehensively identify αS1-casein. Then the αS1-casein was obtained by dialysis and lyophilization, polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing New Zealand white rabbit with the purified αS1-casein, and the specificity of polyclonal antibody was analyzed. Result: Among the four kinds of caseins, αS1-casein had the latest peak time, the largest peak area in anion exchange chromatography and the highest position in the electrophoretic diagram. Finally, the purity of αS1-casein was 94.26%, and the yield was 27.19%. The titers of sera from two rabbits inoculated with purified αS1-casein for five times reached 1,280,000 and 320,000, respectively. In addition to the slight cross reaction with soybean protein (<0.25%), the antiserum showed no cross reaction with α-Lactalbumin, β-Lactoglobulin, egg white protein and peanut protein, indicating high specificity. Conclusion: This study prepared high purity αS1-casein and high specificity polyclonal antibody against αS1-casein, providing a new train of thought for αS1-casein purification and comprehensive identification, and also providing material basis for the development of immunologic method for detection of αS1-casein.
Effects of Probiotic Compound Preparations on Antioxidant Indexes, Cytokines and Intestinal Flora in Mice Treated with Ceftriaxone Sodium
GUO Zichen, LIU Qian, WANG Yunting, WANG Han, ZHAO Jiangyan, ZHAO Yaxin, SUN Yaxuan, DAI Xueling
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110359
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Objective: To explore the effect of a probiotic compound preparation composed of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on dysbiosis of murine gut microbiota induced by ceftriaxone sodium. Methods: Ceftriaxone sodium (2 mg/g) was given to mice for 5 days to construct intestinal dysbiosis model mice and then they were randomly divided into model group, low-dose (2×105 CFU/g), medium-dose (4×105 CFU/g) and high-dose (1.2×106 CFU/g) groups of probiotic compound preparations. In addition, normal mice were set as the control group. From the 6th day, each dose group was administered with the corresponding dose of probiotic compound preparation, the control group and model group were administered with equal volume of normal saline for 30 days. After the gavage, the mice feces were collected to count the intestinal flora and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze the diversity and structure of the flora. The levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in serum were measured. The contents of MDA, T-SOD, GSH and GSH-PX in the jejunum and liver were measured. Results: After administration of ceftriaxone sodium, the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in serum showed an upward trend, the level of MDA in the jejunum increased significantly (P<0.05) and the level of T-SOD decreased significantly (P<0.05). After the intervention of high-dose probiotic compound preparations, the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the levels of IL-2 and TNF-α were significantly decreased (P<0.05). In addition, the levels of MDA in the jejunum and liver were significantly decreased, the level of T-SOD was significantly increased (P<0.05), the level of GSH-PX was significantly increased (P<0.01) and the level of GSH in the small intestine was significantly increased (P<0.01). In terms of intestinal microbes, compared with the model group, the number of Enterococci and Enterobacteria in the feces decreased, the number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria increased in each dose group. The results of microbial diversity analysis showed that the microbial richness of each dose group was restored compared with the model group, the predicted intestinal function was closer to medium and high-dose groups. Conclusion: The probiotic compound preparation can promote the production of antioxidants, reduce the level of cytokines, promote the reproduction of beneficial bacteria, increase the abundance of intestinal flora and improve the intestinal flora imbalance caused by ceftriaxone sodium.
Construction and Stability of Rice Bran Protein-Flaxseed Oil Emulsion System
ZHAO Fuquan, WANG Cheng, ZHOU Jialing, WANG Zhenzhen, YU Zhan, WU Zhixin, SHA Ruyi, MAO Jianwei
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110161
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The flaxseed oil emulsion (O/W type) was prepared by high-speed shearing with rice bran protein as emulsifier. The effects of different rice bran protein addition amount, ultrasonic power, shear speed on the change of emulsion particle size were investigated. The preparation process of the emulsion was optimized by response surface methodology, and the emulsion was characterized and evaluated for its stability. The results showed that the optimal preparation process of flaxseed oil emulsion was as follows: The addition of rice bran protein 0.56%, the shear speed 7900 r/min, and the ultrasonic power 300 W. Under these conditions, the minimum average particle size of the emulsion was 315.14 nm. The prepared emulsion has good pH stability. The emulsion showed outstanding stability within 55 days of storage at 4 ℃ and room temperature at 25 ℃ for 10 days, on the 7th day, the contents of primary oxidation products and secondary oxidation products decreased by 0.026 mmoL/L and 0.031 mg/kg, respectively, showing certain antioxidant properties. This study aimed to provide a theoretical reference for the application of flaxseed oil products.
Comparison of Pesticide Residues in Watermelon Fruits with Different Planting Methods
ZHANG Zhongxiang, SHEN Qi, KANG Jiale, SUN Tao, MA Yanpeng, TAO Yongxia, WANG Cheng
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090365
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In order to clarify the status of pesticide residues in watermelon fruits produced by different cultivation methods and their differences, this paper took 65 watermelon samples produced in three cultivation methods: Large shed, small arch shed, and open field as the research object, and 60 pesticide residues in the completed samples. On the basis of quantitative analysis, through technical methods such as chronic and acute dietary risk analysis and risk ranking, the differences of pesticide residues in watermelon fruits produced by the three planting methods were discussed. The results showed that: Some samples had residual pesticides, but their chronic and acute dietary risks were not high; among the three planting methods, the open field planting method had the largest number of residual pesticides, with 9 types, and the proportion of very lowrisk samples was also low. In the other two methods, it reached 76%; in addition, the three types of planting methods need to focus on the relatively high risk of different types of residual pesticides. The green house used triazophos, and the small arch house used difenoconazole, profenofos, and chlorofluoro cyanurate. Pyrethrin was grown in the open as triazophos, profenofos, and prochloraz. Based on the above analysis, it could be concluded that among the three planting methods, the risk of pesticide residues in watermelon grown in open field was relatively high, and supervision should be strengthened according to the differences in the types of pesticide residues with relatively high risks.
Improvement of "Healthy Choice" Labeling in China Based on International Experience: Evidence from Roasted Seeds and Nuts
HUANG Zeying
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120132
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To guide consumers to choose a healthier roasted seeds and nuts food, this study attempted to improve "Healthy Choice" labeling in China by referring to the recommended nutrition evaluation standard of heart-check mark. It was verified by using 21 kinds of roasted nuts, seeds and kernels/seed kernels included in Chinese Food Composition Table (Volume 1, 6th edition) and found that only chestnuts (cooked), hazelnuts (cooked), peanuts (fried), pumpkin seeds (fried) [white melon seeds] and watermelon seeds (fried) met the nutritional evaluation criteria of saturated fatty acid ≤8 g/100 g, sodium ≤120 mg/100 g, and at least one rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, iron and calcium. Pine nuts (stir-fry) and hazelnuts (stir-fry) labeled with the "Healthy Choice" labeling originally were removed. Therefore, the improved "Healthy Choice" labeling could assist consumers in identifying the nut products with "three cuts" (less salt, less oil and less sugar) and choosing high nutrient-dense foods rich in protein or dietary fiber.
Fuzzy Evaluation Combined with Response Surface Method to Optimize the Formula of Millet Taigu Cake
ZHANG Hongqi, WEI Yixiang, CHEN Shujun
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010140
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Millet has high nutritional value. By adding it into Taigu cake to develop millet Taigu cake, the fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation system of millet Taigu cake was established. In the single factor experiment, sensory score and hardness were used to evaluate millet Taigu cake. Response surface optimized the best recipe for Taigu cake. The results showed that the influence of various factors on the sensory score of millet Taigu cake from large to small was: Millet flour addition>white sugar addition>vegetable oil addition. The best formula of millet Taigu cake was eventually determined as follows: 74 g of wheat flour, 26 g of millet flour, 25 g of white sugar, 30 g of vegetable oil, 12.5 g of starch syrup, 17.5 g of water, 0.8 g of baking soda, 0.3 g of edible alkali, and 10 g of egg. Using this recipe, the sensory evaluation score of millet Taigu cake reached 85.46±2.12, which was consistent with the model prediction value of 85.11. Meanwhile, the millet Taigu cake with this formula had a high sensory score, yellow color, prominent aroma, and the taste was crisp and delicious.
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Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee
Risk Analysis and Countermeasures of Excessive Pesticide Residues in China's Export of Grapes to ASEAN
SONG Xiaoyan, WU Juan, LI Jianjun, ZHAO Minggang
2022, 43(13): 1-8.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120153
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Grape is one of the largest agricultural products exported from China to ASEAN. Grapes are prone to diseases and insect pests in the production process, and a variety of pesticides are used on them. Pesticide residue is an important factor affecting the quality and safety of grapes. Both China and ASEAN countries have set the maximum residue limit (MRL) of pesticides on grapes. This paper compares the pesticide MRL on grapes in China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia and Myanmar, and analyses the risk of excessive pesticide residues in China's export of grapes to ASEAN. The conclusion shows that mancozeb, thiram, azoxystrobin, dimethomorph which are registered on grapes, and fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, fipronil, malathion, deltamethrin, trichlorfon which are unregistered on grapes, have a high risk of excessive pesticide residues when exporting grapes. In addition, Thailand and Malaysia have set a default limit of 0.01 mg/kg, for the pesticides which are registered on grapes in China and have no standard in these two counties and Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), should also be concerned when exporting grapes.
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Future Food
Preparation and Biological Regulation of Lactones by Microbial Transformation: A Review
TIAN Huaixiang, YANG Rui, RONG Shaofeng, YU Haiyan, CHEN Chen
2022, 43(13): 9-16.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090325
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Lactones are widely used in confectionery, beverages, dairy products, baking and other foods due to their typical creamy, floral and fruity aromas. In recent years, because consumers prefer the natural properties of products, the preparation and biological regulation of lactones by microbial transformation has attracted much attention. The microbial transformation mechanisms of γ- and δ-lactones are reviewed in this paper, including the way of fatty acids entering mitochondria, β-oxidation, cyclization and degradation metabolic pathways. The existing regulation methods of microbial transformation are also summarized, such as gene regulation based on genomics, dissolved oxygen, substrate batch culture, cell immobilization and strain mutagenesis. The research direction of regulation of lactones is prospected, which can provide reference for more economical and efficient microbial transformation of lactones.
Activity and Mechanism of Citri grandis Exocarpium-Cordyceps militaris Compound on Reliving Cough Based on Network Pharmacology
JIAO Chunwei, ZHONG Jing, HUANG Haiyong, LIANG Huijia, ZHENG Jiaoji, CHEN Jiaming, XIE Yizhen
2022, 43(13): 17-24.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100261
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This study aimed to investigate the activity and mechanism of Citri grandis Exocarpium-Cordyceps militaris compound on reliving cough by the use of network pharmacology. Mouse cough inducing models were constructed by ammonia water to evaluate the cough suppressant activity of the compound. Multiple online databases and literature searches were then used to collect the active ingredients, targets of action and disease targets of the compound. Construction of compound-target-disease networks and protein interaction networks using Cytoscape and STRING, and GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of target genes using Meatscape. The results showed that the low and high dose groups significantly reduced the number of coughs in mice (P<0.001) and decreased the levels of three inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1α and interleukin 1β in mice serum, with significant differences in the high dose group (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05). The results of the network pharmacological analysis showed that this compound could act on 78 targets including transcription factor AP-1, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor, regulating 575 GO entries and 272 signalling pathways to exert cough suppressant effects, of which cordycepic acid, cordycepin, apigenin, beta-sitosterol and naringenin were the important material basis. The results indicated that the combination of Citri grandis Exocarpium-Cordyceps militaris has cough suppressant activity, which was the result of the combined action of multiple substances in the combination on multiple targets and pathways.
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Research and Investigation
Effects of Different Methods of Inactivating Enzyme on Grain Structure, Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Black Highland Barley
LI Mengjia, TONG Litao, FAN Bei, LIU Liya, WANG Shanshan, SUN Ruoqi, WANG Fengzhong, WANG Lili
2022, 43(13): 25-33.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070377
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In order to prevent the oxidative rancidity of highland barley, three common treatment methods of microwave, roasting and superheated steam were used to inactivate the enzyme of black highland barley. Then the changes of microstructure, nutrient composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity before and after inactivation of enzymes treatment were evaluated when the same enzyme inactivation effect was achieved. The experimental results showed that different methods of inactivating enzyme resulted in different degrees of expansion and browning of highland barley. The color change and equivalent radius of highland barley roasted at 175 ℃ for 20 min was the largest, the equivalent radius of highland barley grain was similar after microwave and superheated steam treatment. By observing the electron microscope of highland barley treated with different methods of inactivating enzyme, it could be found that there were gaps and pores in the cross section of grain, and even large holes in vascular bundles. In addition, total phenols (decreased by 14.71%~20.52%) and total flavonoids (decreased by 11.39%~45.15%) decreased significantly after three treatments, and the content of flavonoids and phenols in highland barley roasted at 150 ℃ for 20 min was the lowest. While the effect of microwave treatment on the content of total phenols was lower than the other two treatments, and the effect of superheated steam treatment on the content of total flavonoids was the least. But DPPH free radical scavenging rate, ABTS+ scavenging rate and antioxidant activity increased except microwave treatment. However, the change trend of antioxidant capacity of highland barley after different enzyme inactivation treatments was not completely consistent with the change trend of total phenol and total flavonoids. Under the treatment conditions of enzyme inactivation rate of 50% and 60%, the antioxidant capacity of highland barley treated with superheated steam was the highest, followed by roasting treatment, and the antioxidant capacity of microwave treatment was the lowest. In summary, it can be concluded that the three treatments can be used to inactivate enzyme and can effectively improve the nutritional quality of highland barley. However, the comprehensive evaluation shows that superheated steam treatment is the best choice among the three treatments.
Effect of Curcumin-Bovine Serum Albumin Complex on the Quality of Yak Milk Cheese
ZHANG Yan, CHEN Lianhong, ZHANG Li
2022, 43(13): 34-41.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080261
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the construction of curcumin encapsulated nanocomposite based on bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be a potential strategy to improve the ripening quality of yak cheese. The moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, pH value, pH4.6 acetate buffer soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid solution soluble nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactant, acid value and sensory index of yak milk cheese were determined. The results showed that the presence of curcumin-BSA nanocomplex could significantly improve the moisture and protein content of yak milk cheese (P<0.05), promote the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria and inhibit the growth of hybrid bacteria, contribute to the decomposition of fat and protein in yak milk cheese, and form short-chain fatty acids and polypeptides, presenting a good unique flavor. However, the high addition of complex would weaken the probiotic effect, reduce the decomposition efficiency of fat and protein, and also cause the cheese to turn yellow and reduce the sensory score. In the early stage of the maturation process, the sensory score was significantly improved due to the occurrence of proteolysis reaction and lipolysis reaction (P<0.05), but too long maturation period would lead to accumulation of bitter peptides and other substances, forming bad flavors and affecting sensory quality. In general, curcumin-bovine serum albumin complex can improve the quality of yak milk cheese, and the best quality of yak milk cheese is obtained when the compound supplemental level is 4% and the maturation time is 60 d.
Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Longan Kernel Starch by Enzyme-assisted Alkali Extraction
LAN Xuyue, WANG Ling, DU Qinling, XU Wen, DAI Qiangui, JIA Dongying
2022, 43(13): 42-48.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090165
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Objective: To clarify the structure and physicochemical properties of longan kernel starch extracted by enzyme-assisted alkali method. Methods: Using longan kernel as raw material and alkaline protease as enzymatic hydrolysis agent, the longan kernel starch was extracted. The chemical composition, particle size, morphology, crystal structure, transparency, solubility and swelling power, thermodynamic properties and gelatinizing properties of starch were studied. Results: 100 g longan kernel starch contained 82.64 g starch, 0.68 g crude fat, 0.46 g crude protein and 1.06 g ash, and its amylose content was 36.37%. Its particles were mostly elliptic or irregular polygon, and their average size was 11.21 μm. The starch had type A crystalline structure and higher short-range order degree. In addition, 1% (w/v) longan kernel starch paste had 4% transparency. Its solubility and swelling power increased with the increase of temperature, being 11.26% and 15.93% at 90 ℃, respectively. Longan kernel starch had high gelatinization initial temperature (70.4 ℃), peak temperature (75.9 ℃), conclusion temperature (82.1 ℃) and enthalpy change (13.7 J/g). Its hot paste stability was poor while its cold paste stability was better. Conclusion: Longan kernel starch by enzyme-assisted alkali extraction had high amylose content and its protein content decreased obviously. In addition, it had small granules, and it was not easily gelatinized.
Effect of Amylose Content on the Formation and Physicochemical Properties of Starch-Fatty Acid Complex
HUANG Chenggang, LI Jinyuan, XU Renyuan, LIU Na, YU Shaopeng, LIU Ju, GUO Dongwei
2022, 43(13): 49-55.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090258
Abstract(20) HTML(9) PDF(4)
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In this study, three different starch-lipid complexes were prepared using corn starch and stearic acid with different straight branch ratios as raw materials. Then the external morphology, crystal structure, digestibility, sustained release and other characteristics of the starch-lipid complex were determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that: Compared with the original starch, the volume of the compound was increased, and the surface was uneven by scanning electron microscope. Infrared spectroscopy proved the formation of starch-lipid complexes, and the increase in hydrogen bonds might lead to an increase in resistant starch content. The complexs generated a diffraction angle of the V-type crystal structure. After treatment, normal corn starch (normal) and high amylose corn starch (G60) reduced the content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), increased the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS), and increased the content of resistant starch (RS). The content of resistant starch reached to 52.0% and 52.4%. The release of stearic acid in the compound was divided into two stages, showing a trend of fast first and then slow, and the increase of amylose content could significantly improve the sustained release ability of the compound for stearic acid. This article could provide a reference for further improving the application scope of amylose.
Preparation and Properties Characterization of Rice Protein-Sodium Alginate IPN Hydrogel
SU Dan, YANG Yang, FAN Jing, BIAN Xin, WANG Bing, LIU Linlin, ZHANG Tienan, MA Chunmin, ZHANG Na
2022, 43(13): 56-62.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100053
Abstract(15) HTML(7) PDF(6)
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In order to meet the demand of high mechanical strength hydrogels in the food field, broken rice protein and sodium alginate were used as the main raw materials to prepare a food-grade broken rice protein (RP)-sodium alginate (SA) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels with high mechanical properties through heat treatment and ion cross-linking in this study. The mechanical properties of IPN hydrogels were adjusted by changing the concentration of rice protein (80, 100, 120, 140, 160 mg/mL) in the gel system of rice protein and sodium alginate, and the properties of the hydrogels, such as texture, rheological properties, whiteness, swelling and water content, were measured after the mixture was heated and Ca2+ cross linked. The results showed that: With the increase of the concentration of broken rice protein in the gel system, the storage modulus G', loss modulus G" and gel hardness of RP-SA IPN hydrogels increased. When the broken rice protein concentration was 140 mg/mL, the increase of gel hardness became smaller. The swelling property of hydrogels first decreased and then tended to be flat, but the water distribution was more uniform. Therefore, proper amount of broken rice protein could fill the RP-SA IPN hydrogels network very well, and the morphology of the hydrogel was not changed greatly. At the same time, the mechanical properties of hydrogels could be regulated by regulating the amount of protein added. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of rice protein in the field of food.
Effect of Vacuum Cooling Combined with Ultrasonic Sterilization on Quality of Marinated Beef
GAO Fei, CAI Huazhen, CHEN Yanhao, DU Qingfei, ZHANG Xindong, CHEN Xianlin, WU Yun
2022, 43(13): 63-70.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100054
Abstract(8) HTML(6) PDF(3)
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In order to avoid the adverse effects of high-temperature sterilization on stewed beef and explore the feasibility of green low-temperature treatment in ensuring the safety and good quality of stewed beef, taking the total number of colonies, TVB-N, TBARS, sensory and moisture distribution as indicators, the effects of vacuum cooling combined with ultrasonic sterilization on the quality of stewed beef were studied by single factor experiment and comparative experiment. The results showed that the ultrasonic treatment power, temperature and time based on vacuum cooling had an obvious impact on the sterilization effect. The sterilization effect was the best when the ultrasonic power was 2500 W, the treatment temperature was 70 ℃ and the sterilization time was 20 min, which significantly reduced the total number of colonies, TVB-N and TBARS (P<0.05). The stewed beef treated by vacuum cooling combined with ultrasonic sterilization had complete and compact structure, obvious left shift of transverse relaxation time T2, shortening of relaxation time, high combination of water and meat components and uniform distribution. Vacuum cooling combined with ultrasonic treatment had obvious bactericidal effect on stewed beef, could delay the oxidation of fat in stewed beef, and had good quality. This study can provide a reference for the green low-temperature sterilization of sauce and marinated meat products.
Effect of Blanching Temperature and Air Frying Time on the Quality of Catfish Skin
SUN Huijuan, LI Min, ZHANG Feiyu, SUN Xi, MA Lizhen, REN Xiaoqing
2022, 43(13): 71-78.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100061
Abstract(36) HTML(16) PDF(9)
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In order to investigate the effect of blanching temperature and air frying time on the quality of catfish skin, the cooking loss rate and thermal stability of fish skin were analyzed after blanching (50, 70, 90 ℃). On the basis of blanching, the moisture, fat, brittleness and transverse relaxation time (T2) of fish skin were measured after air frying for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 min, respectively. The microstructure of fish skin at different blanching temperatures and air frying for 12 min were analyzed. The results showed that: The cooking loss rate of the fish skin was 2.15% blanched at 70 ℃, the thermal stability temperature was 121.97 ℃ and 146.88 ℃, the moisture content was 2.89%, the fat content was 10.85%, and the deformation distance was 0.13 mm after air frying for 12 min. Comparing with 50 ℃ and 90 ℃, 70 ℃ blanching fish skin, the cooking loss rate was moderate, the thermal stability was better, when air frying for 12 min, the moisture content was the lowest, the deformation distance was the smallest, the fat content was lower, and the structure was uniform and smooth. So blanching temperature 70 ℃ was the better temperature which was conducive to the development of products.
Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis by Pullulanase on the Physicochemical Properties of Kudzu Starch
MO Yan, YANG Shangwei, ZHAO Can, LIU Chuanju, HUO Yinqiang, ZHANG Qian, TANG Shangwen
2022, 43(13): 79-85.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100064
Abstract(18) HTML(11) PDF(3)
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The effect of pullulanase enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties of granular kudzu starch was studied. The gelatinization property, content of resistant starch, thermal characteristic, morphology, particle size, crystal structure and molecular structure of kudzu starch (KS) and enzymatic hydrolysis kudzu starch (EHKS) were determined by rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser particle sizer, fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that after the enzymatic hydrolysis of KS, its peak viscosity and breakdown value decreased by 28.33% and 94.69%, respectively, while the trough viscosity, final viscosity and setback value increased by 12.53%, 12.47% and 12.37%, respectively. And the content of resistant starch increased from 1.29% to 4.60%. After the enzymatic hydrolysis of KS, its polarized cross still existed, but the granules expanded and the particles size became large. And the surface layer was peeled off. DSC endothermic peak of modified starch shifts to high temperature region, but its endothermic enthalpy decreased. The enzymatic hydrolysis promoted the formation of short-range ordered structure of starch molecules. After the enzymatic hydrolysis of KS, its relative crystallinity decreased from 37.31% to 29.10%.
Effect of Fortified Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the Quality of Soy Sauce
TAN Ge, ZHU Xingui, LI Xuewei, XIAO Liangqin, TANG Hongbiao, ZHENG Qianwang, GUO Liqiong, LIN Junfang
2022, 43(13): 86-93.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100083
Abstract(12) HTML(9) PDF(6)
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To study the effect of fortified Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (JL-02) on the quality of soy sauce, salt tolerance characteristic of strain JL-02, pH and neutral proteinase activity of koji, the physicochemical properties and volatile flavor substances of two soy sauces in different brewing processes were analyzed. The results showed that salt tolerance of the strain JL-02 was up to 16%, the pH of koji was 6.85±0.08, and the neutral proteinase activity reached to (2109.2±45.2) U/g. Compared with the control group, the soy sauce treated with fortified Zygosaccharomyces rouxii exhibited the increased total acid content ((1.14±0.01) g/100 mL), decreased reducing sugar content ((1.06±0.01) g/100 mL) and pH value (5.09±0.03). But there was no significant difference in the content of amino nitrogen, and all samples reached the standard of special grade soy sauce. In addition, there were 15, 52 and 57 volatile flavor compounds in the koji, control group, and experimental group, respectively. And the furan flavor substances (2-pentylfuran, 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) were increased in the experimental group. The principal component analysis of the volatile flavor compounds in the three groups of samples showed a good result. This research provides a theoretical basis and technical reference for the soy sauce enterprises to carry out the intensified yeast strain brewing soy sauce technology in the future.
Study on the Stability of Antioxidant Peptides from Safflower Seeds with Different Molecular Weight
LIU Xiaoyi, ZHOU Yuyan, GUO Limin, HAO Guangfei
2022, 43(13): 94-102.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100248
Abstract(22) HTML(7) PDF(5)
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Objective: The stability of antioxidant peptide activity of safflower seed protein with different molecular weight was studied. Methods: Using shelled safflower seed meal as experimental material, antioxidant peptides were prepared by compound enzymatic hydrolysis. The scavenging ability of 1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine (DPPH) free radical, superoxide anion radical (O2·) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) were used as indexes. The effects of environmental factors such as temperature, pH, food raw materials, metal ions and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the activity of antioxidant peptides from safflower seeds with different molecular weight were studied. Results: The activities of the protease hydrolysates <3 kDa (SSPH-Ⅰ) and 3~5 kDa (SSPH-Ⅱ) of safflower seeds were significantly higher than those before separation (P<0.05), while the activities of SSPH-Ⅲ (5~10 kDa) and SSPH-Ⅳ (>10 kDa) were significantly lower than those before separation (P<0.05). It was found that the antioxidant activity of SSPH-Ⅰ was more stable and could maintain its activity under the condition of 60 to 121 ℃ and weak acid and weak base of pH 6~8, and the free radical scavenging rate maintenance rate was more than 90%. 10 g/100 mL NaCl, glucose and 0.2 g/100 mL citric acid enhanced the antioxidant activity of SSPH-Ⅰ. The free radical scavenging rate maintenance rate was to about 105%. Sucrose of 10 g/100 mL and preservatives of 0.2 g/100 mL had little effect on the antioxidant activity. The addition of Cu2+, Zn2+ and K+ metal ions significantly decreased the antioxidant stability of SSPH-I and the order of effect was as follows: Cu2+>Zn2+>K+>Mg2+>Ca2+, was stable after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and the maintenance rate was 80% (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antioxidant peptides of <3 kDa safflower seed protein showed high activity and stability, which provided theoretical basis for its industrial production and application.
Effects of Aquatic Species on Gastrointestinal Digestibility of Allergen Tropomyosin
LI Yaru, LUAN Hongwei, LI Wenjiao, LU Ying
2022, 43(13): 103-110.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100251
Abstract(15) HTML(6) PDF(5)
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To study the effects of different types of aquatic products and gastrointestinal digestion on tropomyosin (TM), this article selects three crustaceans (Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon and Eriocheir sisensis) and two shellfish (Venerupis philippinarum and Sinonovacula constricta) as the research object. Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and intestinal fluid (SIF) were used to digest the boiled muscles of 5 kinds of aquatic products, the protein composition and immune activity of the subtracted products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and ELISA. The results showed that all samples were digested faster in SIF, and intestinal was the main place where TM activity was lost. And shellfish (stomach: 86.5%~86.8%, intestine: 90.8%~92.2%) had a significantly better immune activity reduction effect than crustacean aquatic products (stomach: 64.7%~67.7%, intestine: 89.0%~91.5%). By electron microscopy, the myofibrils of crustaceans (156.4~185.8 μm) were significantly longer than that of shellfish (125.0~134.6 μm), and its width was about 3 times that of shellfish. This study found that the type of aquatic products will affect the digestive ability of the gastrointestinal tract of TM. The difference in the muscle tissue structure of crustaceans and shellfish is one of the reasons for the difference in digestibility and immune activity of crustaceans and shellfish. This study can provide a scientific basis for exploring the mechanism of gastrointestinal digestion to reduce the allergenicity of aquatic products.
Pretreatment of Curdlan and Its Effect on the Quality of Low Fat Beef Sausage
CHEN Daochun, LU Zhijuan, QI Ziyuan
2022, 43(13): 111-117.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120253
Abstract(1) HTML(1) PDF(1)
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In order to study the influence of different pretreatment methods on viscosity and gel strength of curdlan, investigate the effects of pretreated curdlan on water-holding capacity and texture properties of low fat beef sausage, the influence of high speed cutting and alkali-neutralization on viscosity and gel strength of curdlan was studied. Furthermore, in the preparation of the low fat beef sausage, curdlan pretreated by high speed cutting and alkali-neutralization was added at 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%. The effects were investigated by measuring cooking loss, water-holding capacity, textural properties and sensory score. The results showed that pretreatments of high speed cutting and alkali-neutralization enhanced viscosity and gel strength of curdlan significantly (P<0.05). Moreover, curdlan pretreated by alkali-neutralization showed higher viscosity and gel strength. Pretreatments of high speed cutting and alkali dissolving were optimal within 5 and 15 min respectively. Cooking loss of low fat beef sausage decreased significantly (P<0.05), non-expressible water, water-holding capacity, hardness, chewiness and sensory score of low fat beef sausage increased obviously with the increased addition of curdlan treated by high speed cutting and alkali-neutralization (P<0.05), in comparison to low fat beef sausage with non-treated curdlan powder. Furthermore, low fat beef sausage added curdlan treated by alkali-neutralization performed better in cooking loss, water-holding capacity, hardness, chewiness and sensory score. Therefore, pretreatments of high speed cutting and alkali-neutralization could be used to improve the viscosity, gel strength and application of curdlan effectively. Meanwhile, alkali-neutralization was the better one.
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Bioengineering
Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Tibetan Plateau Dry Yak Meat Based on High-throughput Sequencing
YI Kaige, WU Hanbing, LI Shuaikang, WANG Wei, GENG Fang, YANG Lin, CHI Fumin, GU Xuedong
2022, 43(13): 118-124.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090140
Abstract(13) HTML(6) PDF(3)
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In order to explore the composition and diversity of bacterial flora in air-dried yak meat on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differences in the composition and diversity of bacterial flora in air-dried yak meat in different regions of Tibet. In this study, the ordered sequences of Nagqu, Qamdo, Xigaze, Lhasa, and Shannan in Tibet were: 56869, 110798, 71633, 86532, 60861, OTU numbers were: 1887, 1567, 2234, 6021, 2190. In the phylum classification, the dominant strains of Nagqu, Xigaze, Lhasa, and Shannan groups were Firmicutes and Actinomycetes, and Qamdo was Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. In terms of family classification, the dominant strain of Naqu group was Lactobacillus, Qamdo group was Enterobacteriaceae, Shigatse group was Intrasporangiaceae, Lhasa group was Micrococcaceae, and Shannan group was Corynebacteriaceae. In terms of genus classification, the Naqu group belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, the Qamdo group belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, the Xigaze and Shannan groups belonged to the genus Corynebacterium, and the Lhasa belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, indicating the colony composition and abundance of air-dried yak meat in different areas of Tibet the above was different. The results found that there were beneficial bacteria for quality formation and flavor production in air-dried yak meat, as well as dominant spoilage bacteria and pathogenic bacteria. This had a lot to do with the pre-processing of raw meat and the production environment of farmers in Tibetan areas. The results provide a certain reference for the subsequent production of air-dried yak meat, to understand the food pathogenic bacteria and the food hazards of pathogenic bacteria, and to improve the awareness of the production and processing hygiene and safety of farmers in Tibetan areas.
Evaluation of Suanjiangshui Quality in Different Fermentation Methods Based on Biomimetic Technology
LI Yao, KONG Xiangcong, QU Xingbo, HOU Qiangchuan, GUO Zhuang, WANG Yurong
2022, 43(13): 125-131.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090241
Abstract(59) HTML(15) PDF(28)
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In order to compare and study the quality difference of Suanjiangshui between purebred fermentation and starter fermentation, Lactobacillus fermentum pure-bred fermentation and old brine fermentation were used to make Suanjiangshui, and the sensory quality was detected by bionic equipment such as electronic tongue, electronic nose and colorimeter. The results showed that the umami of pure fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentum was obviously higher than that of fermentation with old brine, while the sourness and astringency showed opposite trend. In terms of volatile flavor, the intensity of aromatic substances in Suanjiangshui fermented by pure lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher than that fermented by starters (P<0.05). The colorimeter detection showed the brightness and greenness of pure lactic acid bacteria fermented Suanjiangshui were higher than those of starters fermented, and the color difference between them was significant (P<0.05). The results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the overall quality of Suanjiangshui produced by different fermentation methods, and the main indicators that caused the differences were umami, aromatic and alkane volatile flavor substances. In general, the quality of Suanjiangshui fermented by pure lactic acid bacteria was better.
Screening, Identification and Optimization of Biocontrol Conditions for Antagonistic Bacteria of Aspergillus niger
XU Xiaoyu, LI Tian, SHI Xuewei, WANG Bin
2022, 43(13): 132-138.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090271
Abstract(27) HTML(16) PDF(11)
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In order to screen for antagonistic bacteria with good inhibitory effect on black fungal disease in grape storage, in this study, strains with strong inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger, which causes mycorrhizal lesions in grapes after harvest, were screened from soil by plate dilution method, identified using a combination of morphology and molecular biology, and optimized their growth and control conditions using single-factor and orthogonal tests. The results showed that 14 strains of bacteria with inhibitory effect on A.niger were isolated from vineyard soil in Xinjiang, among which, strain G8 had the best inhibitory effect on A.niger. The bacterium G8, which can antagonise A. niger, was identified as Bacillus siamensis. The optimum conditions for Bacillus siamensis G8 were: 3% inoculum, initial pH7, incubation temperature of 33 ℃, shaking speed of 160 r/min, and incubation time of 33 h. The inhibition diameter reached 28.79 mm under these conditions. The results of the study will provide theoretical basis for the application of antagonistic bacteria in the biological control of A. niger after grape harvest.
Directed Evolution and High-level Expression of α-Amylase from Thermomyces dupontii
JIN Yan, LI Yanxiao, MA Junwen, WANG Yuchuan, YAN Qiaojuan, JIANG Zhengqiang
2022, 43(13): 139-147.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100086
Abstract(19) HTML(8) PDF(4)
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Objective: The α-amylase from Thermomyces dupontii was modified by direct evolution to improve its thermostability and expression level. Methods: A mutation library of α-amylase (Td-amy) from Thermomyces dupontii was constructed by error-prone PCR. The mutants with higher thermostability and specific activity were selected through high-throughput screening, analysis of the mutants by site-directed mutagenesis and homologous structure simulation, and expression in Pichia pastoris. Results: A positive mutant (mTd-amy) was selected. The optimal temperature of mTd-amy was 60 ℃, which was higher than that of the wild type enzyme Td-amy (55 ℃) by 5 ℃. The specific activity of mTd-amy (466.3 U/mg) was 2.0 times higher than that of Td-amy (227.9 U/mg). Sequence and mutation analysis revealed that four sites (Ala4Val, Ala122Val, Lys194Arg and Ala468Asp) in mTd-amy were mutated, and Ala122 Val and Ala468Asp played a key role in the specific activity and optimal temperature of the mutant. mTd-amy was further expressed in Pichia pastoris, and its expression level was up to 64696 U/mL through high cell density fermentation. Conclusion: Through directed evolution, a positive mutant of with high optimal temperature and specific activity was obtained. It provides a theoretical basis for the molecular modification and industrial application of α-amylase.
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Processing Technology
Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Phenylethanoside from Cistanche tubulosa and Its Antioxidant Activities
WEI Yuping, ZHAO Yan, ZHANG Li, WANG Qiongqiong, PU Yunfeng, HOU Xujie, SONG Lijun
2022, 43(13): 148-155.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090248
Abstract(32) HTML(5) PDF(6)
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In order to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of phenylethanol glycosides from Cistanche tubulosa (Ct) in Xinjiang, box-behnken design was used to optimize the extraction conditions based on single factor experiments. Optimal conditions were the temperature of 40 ℃, the solid-liquid ratio of 1:41.7 g/mL and the ethanol concentration of 51%. The extraction yield under the optimal conditions was (14.36±0.12) mg/g. The extracts were mainly composed of echinacoside and verbascoside, the contents of which were (12.96±0.33) mg/g and (1.19±0.09) mg/g, respectively. The phenylethanoside extracts showed strong scavenging ability to hydroxyl radical and DPPH free radical, and the semi-inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 60.196 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL, respectively. This study provides basic data for the extraction of phenylethanoside from Cistanche tubulosa in Xinjiang.
Preparation and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Tea Polyphenol Sweet Potato Starch Noodles
GUO Weiyun, CHEN Zhenhao, GAO Xueli, LI Guanghui, WANG Yonghui, SUN Sisheng, HUANG Jihong
2022, 43(13): 156-161.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090361
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The effects of the amount and opportunity of tea polyphenols addition on breaking rate, iodine blue value, sensory quality and texture characteristics of sweet potato starch noodles were investigated and the effects of the retention rate and free radical scavenging rate of tea polyphenols under dry storage at room temperature and fresh a frozen were studied with noodles as the control. It was found that the quality of sweet potato starch noodles made by adding tea polyphenols before gelatinization was generally better than that made by adding tea polyphenols after gelatinization, and the optimal adding amount of tea polyphenols was 0.15 g/100 g. The results showed that the retention rate of tea polyphenols was 60.73% and the free radical scavenging rate decreased by 16.29% after 60 days of dry and normal temperature storage. Under the condition of wet and frozen storage, the retention rate of tea polyphenols in sweet potato noodle was 71.54%, and the free radical scavenging rate decreased by 10.38%. Moreover, the protective effect of sweet potato starch noodles on the content and activity of tea polyphenols under the two storage conditions was significantly better than that of flour noodles.
Optimization of Response Surface for Ultrasonic Acid Extraction of Pectin from Passion Fruit Peel and Its Antioxidant Activity
WANG Jinxiu, ZHAO Qingqing, XU Xinyi, XIE Qian, CHEN Qingxi
2022, 43(13): 162-170.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090363
Abstract(33) HTML(4) PDF(4)
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In order to further realize the waste utilization of PFP and reduce the waste of resources and environmental pollution, PFP pectin was extracted by ultrasonic assisted acid method and its antioxidant activity was studied. By investigating the effects of pH, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power and ultrasonic temperature on the extraction ratio of PFP pectin, response surface optimization was carried out on the basis of single factor test to get the best extraction process, and acid method was used as the control. The effects of ultrasonic-assisted acid method on scavenging DPPH free radical (DPPH·), hydroxyl free radical (·OH) and superoxide anion free radical ($ {\text{O}}_{2}^{-} $·) of PFP pectin were studied. The results showed that: The optimal extraction parameters of PFP pectin by ultrasonic assisted acid method were pH2.0, ultrasonic time 70 min, ultrasonic power 210 W, ultrasonic temperature 45 ℃, and the yield of pectin was 14.78%±0.21%. The scavenging rates of DPPH·, ·OH and $ {\text{O}}_{2}^{-} $· were 60.96%±1.03%, 80.16%±1.78% and 59.13%±2.10%, which were higher than those of acid method.
Microwave-Ultrasonic Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Nitraria and Its Antioxidant Analysis
ZHI Dexian, ZHANG Ni, LI Jianying
2022, 43(13): 171-179.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100056
Abstract(40) HTML(7) PDF(9)
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The single-factor combined response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-ultrasonic extraction of Nitraria tangutorum proanthocyanidins, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity and total reduction ability. The results showed that the liquid–material ratio, ethanol concentration, microwave time and ultrasonic temperature had significant effects on the extraction rate of proanthocyanidins. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration of 65%, liquid-material ratio of 14.5 mL/g, microwave time of 2 min, and ultrasonic temperature of 50 ℃. The average extraction rate of proanthocyanidins from Nitraria tangutorum was (17.289±0.402) mg/g, with only a 2.4% difference from the theoretical prediction, indicating that the optimal extraction conditions optimized by the model were stable and reliable and had practical application value. The purity of the extract after purification with macroporous resin reached 81.4%. The results of in vitro antioxidant experiments showed that the proanthocyanidins of Nitraria tangutorum had suitable ABTS (IC50=0.261 mg/mL) and DPPH (IC50=0.159 mg/mL) free radical strong scavenging capacity, it also had a certain ability to scavenging hydroxyl radicals (IC50=0.712 mg/mL), with good reduction ability. Therefore, microwave-ultrasonic combine can improve the extraction efficiency significantly, and Nitraria tangutorum proanthocyanidins has strong anti-oxidative activity in vitro. It provides a scientific reference for the comprehensive utilization of Nitraria.
Optimization of Bionic Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll and Antioxidant Activity Analysis of Its Hydrolysate Peptides
HUANG Yu, LIU Weihong, WANG Hongyang, ZHU Qianer, LANG Xiaoxiao, WANG Wei, CHEN Shenglong, YU Hui
2022, 43(13): 180-189.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100073
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Bioactive peptides were prepared from Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll by bionic enzymatic hydrolysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process based on single factor test with the polypeptide yield and degree of hydrolysis as the main indexes, and the scavenging ability of polypeptide on three free radicals (DPPH, ABTS, OH) was evaluated. The results showed that the optimal conditions of biomimetic enzymatic hydrolysis were as follows: Ultrasonic power 720 W, ultrasonic wall breaking time 40 min, solid-liquid ratio 1:104 g/mL, pepsin dosage 6.1%, enzymatic hydrolysis time 2.5 h, trypsin dosage 5%, enzymatic hydrolysis time 3 h. Under these conditions, the polypeptide yield was 21.17% and the degree of hydrolysis was 43.07%. Enzymatic peptide had good scavenging effects on DPPH, ABTS and OH radicals with IC50 values of 5.71, 1.31 and 1.35 mg/mL, respectively. The optimized bionic enzymatic hydrolysis process of Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll was reasonable and feasible, and the enzymatic peptide had good free radical scavenging ability, indicating that the enzymatic peptide had good antioxidant activity and could be used as ingredients in the development of functional food.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Thermo-alkaline Extraction for Quinoa Protein
YUAN Xiaorui, CHEN Heyu, LIU Yu, WU Qinghang, YANG Liu, ZHAO Yanyan, ZHOU Haixu, ZHU Mingming, CAI Ziran, ZHAO Shengming
2022, 43(13): 190-197.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100078
Abstract(24) HTML(6) PDF(4)
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Taking quinoa as the raw material, NaOH solution was used as solvent, ultrasonic-assisted thermo-alkaline technology was used to extract soluble protein from quinoa. The extraction temperature, extracting time, extraction solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power that affected the extraction rate of quinoa protein were optimized by single factor experiment and response surface experiment, and the solubility, emulsification and foaming activity of the extracted products were determined. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions of quinoa protein were: Temperature 40 ℃, ultrasonic time 2 h, solid-liquid ratio 1:35 (g/mL) and ultrasonic power 400 W. The extraction yield ratio of quinoa protein reached 78.20%, which was basically consistent with the predicted value of regression model of response surface optimization test. The emulsifying and foaming properties of quinoa protein showed that 3.5% of quinoa protein had preferable emulsifying properties and emulsifying stability, solubility of 61.18%, emulsifying properties of 5.39 m2/g and emulsifying stability of 255.59 min; 3% of quinoa protein solution had superior foaming property and foam stability, foaming ability 101.0%, and foam stability 66.0%.
Study on Extraction Technology and Pharmacological Activities of Polysaccharide from Ziziphus jujube
GONG Pin, WANG Peipei, TONG Meilin, LONG Hui, MAO Gennian, CHEN Fuxin
2022, 43(13): 198-207.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100105
Abstract(44) HTML(19) PDF(8)
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Polysaccharide from Ziziphus jujube Mill. (ZJP) was extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction. Taking the extraction rate as the evaluation index, the extraction process of polysaccharide was optimized by Design-Expert8.0 and orthogonal experiment on the basis of single-factor test. Subsequently, DPPH free radical and hydroxyl free radical scavenging abilities were used as indicators to evaluate the antioxidant effect of polysaccharides, and the inhibitory rates of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were used as indicators to prove that jujube polysaccharides had the potential of reducing blood sugar. Finally, an external model was established to explore its hypoglycemic mechanism. The optimum parameters were as follows: ultrasonic time of 40 min, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, ultrasonic power of 80 W, water-bath incubation time of 30 min. Under these conditions the extraction rate of ZJP was 6.58%, which was consistent with the theoretical prediction value of 6.71%. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of ZJP was determined by DPPH free radical and hydroxyl free radical scavenging system and iron-reducing power. In addition, when the polysaccharide concentration reached 14 mg/mL, the inhibition rate of α-glucosidase was 51.56%, and when the concentration was 4 mg/mL, the inhibition rate of α-amylase was 28.43%, respectively, confirming that jujube polysaccharide had obvious hypoglycemic activity. On this basis, the insulin resistance HepG2 cell model was used to detect the glucose consumption effect of different concentrations of jujube polysaccharides by glucose kit and MTT method. The results showed that when the concentration of the drug was 1.0 mg/mL, the cell's consumption of glucose was the largest, GT/MTT reached 154.2% of the model group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression level of PI3K/Akt pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and it was determined that ZJP could alleviate insulin resistance and exert cytoprotective effect by activating PI3K/Akt pathway. In summary, the extraction method of jujube polysaccharide was optimized, and it was confirmed that jujube polysaccharide had anti-oxidant activity and hypoglycemic activity in vitro, and could be used as a potential anti-oxidant or functional food with a homology of medicine and food.
Optimization of Oil Separation from Spanish Mackerel Viscera by Ultrasonic Field Coupled with Subcritical Water
LI Lin, SHAO Lingjian, PENG Xinyan, ZHANG Shurong, ZHANG Yue, HUANG Pingping
2022, 43(13): 208-217.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100208
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To explore an effective solution for high-value utilization of fish viscera, ultrasound coupled with subcritical water extraction (USCWE) was used to separate fish oil from Spanish mackerel viscera. The results were compared with those from enzymatic extraction (EE), ultrasonic-assisted organic solvent extraction (UOSE), and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to analyze the fatty acid composition of the fish oil. The conversion rate of hydrothermal liquefaction (CRHL) of Spanish mackerel visceral stroma protein (SMVSP) was determined to explore the chemical mechanism of USCWE. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe the destructive action of ultrasonic physical effect coupled with subcritical water hydrothermal liquefaction on the network structure composed of stroma protein. The optimal conditions for USCWE of fish oil were consistent with that for the CRHL of SMVSP. The maximum extraction yield (EY, 59.87%±2.86%) of fish oil and CRHL of SMVSP (92.37%±3.12%) were obtained at 260 ℃ and 10 MPa with ultrasound enhancement (250 W/L, 20 kHz) for 60 min. Compared with the other three extraction methods, the EY of fish oil by USCWE was the highest. Moreover, the contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil were also the highest, which were (46.01±0.31) mg/g and (116.78±0.91) mg/g, respectively. The fish oil obtained by SCE showed the lowest acid value (AV, (7.15±0.33) mg KOH/g), peroxide value (POV, (1.83±0.13) mmol/kg), and carbonyl group value (CGV, (2.01±0.21) mEq/kg). USCWE could effectively destruct the network structure composed of stroma protein and fully released the fish oil wrapped in the mesh which had the advantages of environmental protection, short extraction time, high extraction yield and high content of EPA or DHA. The oxidation stability of fish oil by SCE was the highest, but the extraction time of SCE was longer and the EY was lower. This study elucidated the mechanism of USCWE of fish oil from Spanish mackerel viscera and provided experimental and theoretical basis for the precise use of this technology.
Optimization of Polysaccharide Extraction Process from Tuber liyuanum and Analysis of Its Monosaccharide Composition
LU Bin, ZHANG Fengming, CAI Zhengda, ZHANG Hua, YU Fuqiang
2022, 43(13): 218-224.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100234
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Objective: In this study, Tuber liyuanum was used as the experimental material to optimize and determine the extraction process of polysaccharides, and analyze the monosaccharide components. Methods: On the basis of single factor experiment, L9(34) orthogonal experiment was used to design, optimize and determine the optimum technological conditions for extracting polysaccharides by water extraction and alcohol precipitation, and the monosaccharide components of T. liyuanum were analyzed by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyridine pre-column derivatization HPLC with oxazolinone. Results: The optimum process conditions of extracting polysaccharides from T. liyuanum were as follows: Extraction temperature was 90 ℃, extraction time was 60 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio was 1:25 g/mL. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharides was 10.57% ± 0.31%. The polysaccharides of T. liyuanum were mainly composed of D-glucose and a small amount of D-mannose and D-galactose. And the ratio of its substances was 1:0.023:0.006. Conclusion: The water extraction and alcohol precipitation method could obtain a higher yield of T. liyuanum polysaccharides under the optimal extraction process conditions, which was simple, stable and feasible. The determination of monosaccharides composition in T. liyuanum polysaccharides by pre-column derivatization HPLC was simple, reproducible and accurate, which could provide a theoretical basis for further research on T. liyuanum polysaccharides in pear orchards.
Extraction of Melanin in Apricot Kernel Shell and the Optimization of Chelating Process of Its Metal Chelates
GAO Li, LIU Linlin, LIU Panpan, XU Hongyu, WANG Haibin, LIU Haiying, YANG Liu
2022, 43(13): 225-234.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100255
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In this study, single factor and response surface methodology were used to optimize the extraction parameters of melanin from waste apricot kernel shell. The structure of the obtained melanin was identified by UV-vis/IR absorption spectrum and scanning electron microscope. Then, the chelating effect of extracted melanin with Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ metal ions were used as the index, and the single factor experiment was used to optimize the chelating process. In order to provide theoretical basis for further development and utilization of the chelate as functional food, the structure of the chelate was identified by UV-vis absorption spectrum, infrared absorption spectrum, scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum scanning. The results showed that the order of influence of the selected factors on the yield of melanin was: ultrasonic time, alkali concentration, pH, solid-liquid ratio. According to the results of response surface model, the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solid-liquid ratio 1:10 g/mL, sodium hydroxide concentration 1.5 mol/L, acid precipitation pH value 1, ultrasonic time 35 min, under this condition, the yield was 4.78%±0.23% . The optimum chelating process of iron melanin chelate was as follows: iron ion concentration 5 mmol/L, pH5.5, reaction for 8 h; The optimum chelating conditions of copper melanin chelate was copper ion concentration 4 mmol/L, pH7.5, reaction for 6 h. The optimal chelating process of zinc melanin chelate was as follows: zinc ion concentration 3 mmol/L, pH7.5, reaction 4 h. Under the same conditions, the chelating rate of iron melanin reached 63.86%. Ultraviolet and infrared results showed that melanin chelated with metal ions mainly through amino, carbonyl or carboxyl groups. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectrum results showed that the three metal chelates were successfully prepared. This study provided a theoretical basis for the development of functional food additives and metal element supplements and had a wide range of practical value and market prospects.
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Food Safety
Rapid Differentiation and Identification of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi by FT-IR Spectroscopy
GONG Fang, LIU Xiaojing, KANG Qiuyan, WANG Ying, LI Zhaojie
2022, 43(13): 235-241.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100062
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Objective: In order to satisfy the detection requirements of common foodborne pathogenic microorganisms in food safety detection, Fourier tranform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to establish a method for rapid differentiation and identification method for common foodborne pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: FT-IR fingerprints absorption spectra of 977.9~1805.3 cm−1 for 13 species of foodborne pathogenic bacteria, 900~1800 cm−1 and 2800~3700 cm−1 for 12 species of fungi were collected. Two chemometric methods (PCA and HCA) were used for the data analysis. The veracity of the method to classify the suspected species was proved by labeling verification experiment. Results: The standard spectral derivatives library of all species were created. Two discriminant models were created, and the results showed that the HCA cluster analysis model was proved to be suitable to accurately cluster 13 pathogenic bacteria and 12 fungi at the interspecific level. The suspected strains in the labeling verification experiment were accurately clustered to the corresponding species. Conclusion: The FT-IR technique combined with HCA clustering analysis method were proved to be a feasible method to provide rapid identification of common foodborne pathogenic bacteria and fungi species.
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Analysis and Determination
Analysis of Changes of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Asparagus-Kiwifruit Wine during Fermentation
WANG Li, LI Xue, LIU Guangxian, CHENG Wenlong, ZHANG Yao, WANG Guoqing, MAO Saisai
2022, 43(13): 242-250.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080153
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Asparagus-kiwifruit wine was prepared by mixed fermentation of squeezed asparagus byproducts and kiwifruit juice. The volatile aroma components of asparagus-kiwifruit wine in the early, middle, late, post-fermentation and aging stages were analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). A total of 78 volatile aroma components were detected during the whole fermentation stage, and the most volatile aroma components in each fermentation stage were esters and alcohols. Among them, ethyl ester accounted for a relatively large proportion of the total ester, which was 54.72%, 79.20%, 72.92%, 76.60% and 70.14%, respectively. As the fermentation progressed, the types of volatile aroma substances gradually decreased and tended to stabilize, and the mass concentration first increased and then decreased and stabilized. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caproate, methyl phenylacetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, phenylethanol and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol were common volatile aroma substances in the whole fermentation stage. 13 kinds of characteristic aroma substances were obtained by the method of odor activity value (OAV), and ethyl caproate and ethyl octanoate were the characteristic aroma substances shared in the whole fermentation stage, among which ethyl octanoate was the compound with the largest OAV value in each fermentation stage. The main characteristic aroma substances in the early stage of fermentation were ethyl octanoate and phenylacetaldehyde. The main characteristic aroma substances in the middle and late fermentation were ethyl octanoate and ethyl caproate. The main characteristic aroma substances during post fermentation and aging were ethyl octanoate and 2-methyl butyl acetate. This study analyzed the characteristic flavor of asparagus-kiwifruit wine, and provided a theoretical reference for the development of asparagus-kiwifruit wine.
Analysis of Lipid Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Yak Bone
LIANG Yunxia, XIE Suya, LI Hongbo, ZHANG Xiaoyong, XU Dan, MO Haizhen, LIU Zhenbin, HU Liangbin
2022, 43(13): 251-257.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100010
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In order to improve yak bone utilization rate and realize high-value utilization, the lipid composition and physicochemical parameters of yak bone were determined and analyzed by GC-MS and IUPAC method. A total of 20 fatty acids were detected by lipidomic analysis, of which SFA (Saturated fatty acid) content accounted for 41.75%, FA n:1 (Monounsaturated fatty acid) 53.01%, PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acid) 1.46%, and others 3.79%. A total of four lipids were detected in negative ion mode: Car (Acetyl L-Carnitine), SM (Sphingomyelines), PC (Phosphatidylcholines) and TAG (Triacylglycerols), and the contents were PC>SM>TAG>Car in order. The results of physical and chemical indexes showed that the fat of yak leg bone had better stability and more saturated fatty acids. Two substances, α-trienol and γ-trienol, were detected in yak leg bones. The oxidation stability of oil showed that the induction time of yak bone oil was 5.56 h, the oxidation stability of yak bone oil was high, and it had strong anti-oxidation effect. Fatty acids are closely related to bone health. Yak bone is rich in fatty acids. Therefore, yak bone can be used as a potential nutrient to maintain bone health.
Effects of Different Deodorization Methods on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chicken Liver
LIU Zeqi, JIANG Weifeng, DENG Yitong, LIANG Zhiqian, CHEN Baixi, TAN Rongjie, WU Shaozong, ZENG Xianjun, ZHENG Hua
2022, 43(13): 258-266.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100084
Abstract(109) HTML(19) PDF(17)
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To investigate the changes of flavor compounds of chicken liver by different deodorization methods, the volatile flavor compounds of raw and cooked chicken liver samples were analyzed by sensory evaluation, electronic nose and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that deodorization methods of ginger juice/alcohol immersion, β-cyclodextrin embedding and yeast fermentation could significantly reduce the odor value (P<0.05). The radar chart of electronic nose response value showed that the overall odor of chicken liver was mainly sulfide, aromatic components, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Deodorization by immersing liver into ginger juice/alcohol could change the original flavor contour of chicken liver, and principal component analysis (PCA) could better distinguish each sample. A total of 124 volatile flavor compounds were detected by HS-SPME-GC-MS. After deodorization process of ginger juice/alcohol immersion and yeast fermentation, the contents of aldehydes and many odorous compounds in chicken liver decreased significantly. After the chicken liver was cooked, benzaldehyde was the main flavor of chicken liver. The ethanol content in ginger juice/alcohol immersion group was obviously higher than that of control group and yeast fermentation group, which was the factor to maintain good flavor after cooking. The paper suggested that ginger juice/alcohol immersion and yeast fermentation could better improve the flavor of chicken liver.
Volatile Flavor Compounds Analysis in Lateolabrax japonicus Fish Floss Fried with Three Vegetable Oils Based on GC-IMS
HUO Yuming, ZHOU Jing, ZHANG Huadan, CHENG Wenjian, CHEN Lijiao, LIANG Peng
2022, 43(13): 267-275.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100096
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On the basis of sensory scoring, color difference and texture of the optimal amount of vegetable oil to be added to 3%, compositions of volatile flavor compounds in Lateolabrax japonicus fish floss during frying process with three kinds of vegetable oils (peanut oil, palm oil and sunflower oil) were thoroughly evaluated by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) in this study. The results showed that 40 volatile substances were identified in the three kinds of vegetable oils fried fish floss, including aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and ketones compounds. The highest relative content of aldehydes was respectively 63.33%, 57.58% and 43.75% in peanut oil, palm oil and sunflower oil fried fish floss. There were characteristic flavor components of fish floss fried with different vegetable oils, which propanal and benzaldehyde were detected in fish floss fried with peanut oil and palm oil respectively; 3-methylbutan-1-ol and hexanal in fish floss fried with peanut oil and sunflower oil. The results indicated that the fingerprints of the three vegetable oil fried fish floss had low similarity established according to GC-IMS, which could effectively distinguish the vegetable oil source of fried fish floss, and could be used as the identification of vegetable oil fried fish floss and the identification of adulteration.
Correlation Analysis between Nutritional Evaluation and Gene Expression of Crassostrea hongkongensis in Different Fattening Sea Areas
YAN Xueyu, QIN Bozhong, HUANG Weide, PENG Jinxia, ZHU Peng, JIANG Meijun, ZHANG Bin, LI Xuanji, ZHONG Fangjie, WEI Pinyuan
2022, 43(13): 276-283.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100181
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In the present study, the nutrient composition of Crassostrea hongkongensis from two oyster fattening areas in Qinzhou Bay, Guangxi was evaluated. And then the metabolism-related gene expression in the mantle, adductor muscle and gill tissues of C. hongkongensis was analyzed, and the correlation between nutrient composition and gene expression was discussed. The results showed that the contents of cholesterol, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc and some amino acids including phenylalanine, histidine, glutamic acid and alanine of C. hongkongensis in Qinzhou Port fattening area were significantly higher than those in Dafeng River fattening area (P<0.05). And the proportion of essential amino acids (35.51%) and the proportion of half-essential amino acids (10.51%) of C. hongkongensis in Qinzhou Port fattening area were also higher than those in Dafeng River fattening area (34.06%, 9.31%). Conversely, the contents of calcium, sodium, magnesium and the proportion of flavor development amino acids (41.33%) of C. hongkongensis in Dafeng River fattening area were better. Moreover, the gene expression of P5CS, GP and SREBP of C. hongkongensis in Qinzhou Port fattening area were higher than those in Dafeng River fattening area, while the gene expression of DYRK was lower, but the differences were not significant (P>0.05). The heat map of Spearman correlation showed that the gene expression of P5CS, GP and SREBP were positively correlated with the contents of multiple nutrient composition and amino acids, in which the gene expression of GP was significantly positively correlated with energy, fat, cholesterol and vitamins (P<0.01), but the gene expression of DYRK was negatively correlated with the contents of various nutrients and 14 amino acids. In conclusion, there were certain differences existed in the contents of nutrient composition and the metabolism-related gene expression of C. hongkongensis from two oyster fattening areas in Qinzhou Bay, which had own characteristics in nutritional value and flavor taste separately, and both oyster culture areas could be used for fattening and breeding of C. hongkongensis.
Construction of PMP-HPLC Fingerprint of Partial Acid Hydrolysate of Polygonatum cyrtonema Polysaccharides Based on the Chemometric Methods
ZHOU Zhongyu, DU Zefei, PU Tingting, YANG Liying, YAN Renyi, DUAN Baozhong
2022, 43(13): 284-290.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100218
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In this paper, the polysaccharides fingerprints of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. were constructed, combined with various chemometric methods, to evaluate the differences of P. cyrtonema polysaccharides from different origins. The 1-pheny-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) pre-column derivatization-HPLC method was applied to analyze the monosaccharide composition and total polysaccharide content of P. cyrtonema. Furthermore, the fingerprints were further evaluated by chemometric methods, including similarity analysis (SA), cluster analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the composition of monosaccharides was galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, glucose, and xylose. The similarities were ranged from 0.781 to 0.945. In addition, the content of total polysaccharides was in the range of 7.18% to 16.27%. HCA and PCA all divided P. cyrtonema polysaccharides from different origins into two categories, the samples collected in Cili County, Hunan Province were a separate one. These results indicated that the polysaccharide fingerprints of P. cyrtonema were quite different. Establishing the standardized cultivation technology system of P. cyrtonema is necessary to ensure clinical efficacy and safety.
Effect of Variety and Ripening Stage on Volatile Compounds of NFC Cloudy Apple Juice
ZHANG Wanzhen, LI Minbo, LIU Qihui, HU Xiaosong, YI Junjie
2022, 43(13): 291-302.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100238
Abstract(51) HTML(17) PDF(22)
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In order to explore the effects of variety and late ripening stage on flavor of apple juice, volatile profile of apple juice obtained from five varieties and three late ripening stages were analyzed using headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis. The results showed that alcohols (2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, etc.), aldehydes (hexanal, E-2-hexenal, etc.) and esters (2-methyl Butyl acetate, etc.) were the main volatile components of apple juice. Variety and late ripening stage had significant effects on the content and composition of key aroma components in apple juice. Granny Smith apple juice had the lowest contents of volatile components among samples and aldehydes were the main volatiles representing green grass flavor; Fuji, Gala, and Golden Delicious apple juices showed similar volatile profile with high amounts of esters, aldehydes, and alcohols. The volatile aroma components of Huashuo apple juice were mainly alcohols and aldehydes, and the whole juice showed a light taste. In addition, during late ripening stages, volatiles clearly changed in apple juice with different varieties. Volatiles of Fuji and Granny Smith apple juice were gradually accumulated and content of respective 28 and 15 volatile compounds increased significantly during late ripening. There was an increased but then decreased trend of volatile contents in Gala and Golden Delicious apple juice. However, Huashuo apple juice showed decreased volatiles contents during late ripening. The outcome of the research on flavor changes of apple cloudy juice could provide theoretical support for raw material selection of cloudy apple juice industry.
Determination of Nine Kinds of Vitamin B Components in Healthy Food Vitamin B Tablets by HPLC
TAN Wanqing, WANG Shuling, GUAN Riqing
2022, 43(13): 303-310.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110019
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Objective: To establish a method for the determination of nine vitamin B components in vitamin B tablets by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Method: Folic acid was ultrasonically extracted with 0.3% ammonia solution, biotin, vitamin B12 and pantothenate acid were ultrasonically extracted with water, the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and nicotinamide were ultrasonically extracted by 0.1% hydrochloric acid, separated by C18 column with methanol-0.1 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Pantothenate acid and biotin were detected at the wavelength of 205 nm, vitamins B1, B2, niacin and nicotinamide were detected at the wavelength of 256 nm, vitamins B6 and folic acid were detected at the wavelength of 287 nm, vitamins B12 was detected at the wavelength of 361 nm. Results: The results showed that the nine components could be separated well, and the linear relationship was good in their linear range. The average recoveries were 91.8%~106.9%, RSD were 0.2%~4.8%, and the detection limit of the method were 0.05~4.7 mg/kg. Conclusion: This method is rapid, simple, accurate and repeatable. It can quickly complete the determination of nine vitamin B components in health food vitamin B tablets and reduce the cost.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Blueberry Quality Based on Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis
XU Wenjing, CHEN Changlin, DENG Sha, LIU Yijun, LÜ Yuanping
2022, 43(13): 311-319.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110198
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Objective: To explore the comprehensive quality characteristics of blueberries. Methods: 20 indexes including sensory morphology, nutritional function, free amino acids and volatile flavor substance content of six varieties of blueberries in Sichuan were detected by automatic amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other instruments. Furthermore, its comprehensive quality was evaluated by the principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Results: There were differences among different blueberry varieties. The single fruit weight (2.06 g) and transverse diameter (14.39 mm) of Brigita were the highest, while the gumminess (151.96 N) and total phenol content (1.64 mg/g) were the lowest; Mistry had the highest free amino acid content (453.72 mg/100 g), and the proportion of umami and sweet amino acids was higher; Emerald had the lowest free amino acid content (122.93 mg/100 g) and the least variety; Gardenblue had moderate hardness, its sugar-acid ratio (28.23), anthocyanin content (2.09 mg/g), total phenol content (5.78 mg/g) and flavor substances content (14.60 μg/g) were the highest. Conclusions: According to principal component analysis, the optimal variety was Gardenblue. Cluster analysis divided blueberries into three categories, suitable for fresh-eating varieties including Gardenblue and Legacy; suitable for both processing and fresh-eating varieties were Emerald, Brigitta and Misty; while Bluerain had outstanding processing advantages.
Visual Analysis of Carrot Juice Research Status Based on Bibliometrics
LÜ Xinran, LI Xinjie, LIANG Yuan, YANG Yufan, YUAN Quyu, WANG Haoli, BAO Shihan, MA Tingting
2022, 43(13): 320-328.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010252
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In order to grasp the main research status and hot spots of carrot juice at home and abroad, and predict the development trend of carrot juice research, this paper adopted bibliometrics method, and used Web of Science database and CNKI database as data set sources. The co-occurrence analysis of keywords, countries and authors were carried out by VOSviewer, Bibliometric and other analytical tools, and the publication distribution and research time distribution at home and abroad were compared. Through the mining of keywords and other data related to carrot juice, it could be concluded that carrot juice, as the main processing product of carrot, had important research significance, its research mainly focused on the antioxidant components of carrot juice, carrot juice fermentation and carrot juice sterilization storage and other aspects. Finally, the research contents and status quo of carrot juice in different research directions were summarized to provide reference for the follow-up research of carrot juice.
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Storage and Preservation
Induction of Melatonin Treatment on the Priming Resistance in Postharvest Plum Fruit
LEI Changyi, WANG Kaituo, TAN Meilin, WANG Jinsong, LI Chunhong
2022, 43(13): 329-335.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090105
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This study aimed to research the effectiveness and mode of the disease resistance induced by melatonin (MT) treatment in postharvest plum fruit. Plum fruit Cv ‘Fenghuang’ were treated with 10 mmol/L MT and/or inoculated with R. stolonifer, then stored for 5 days (20 ℃). Disease development, the contents of H2O2, total phenol and lignin and the activities of resistance-related enzyme were determined during the storage. The results showed that 10 mmol/L treatment effectively lowered the disease incidence and delayed the increase of lesion diameter of Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in plums. Single MT treatment could induce the activities of phenylpropanoid metabolic enzymes and the contents of total phenol and lignin in plums. MT treatment combined with R. tolonifer inoculation showed most significantly effects on the induction of H2O2 burst, and the activities of disease-resistance related enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaric acid coenzyme A ligase (4-CL), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) as well as contents of total phenol and lignin in the samples during the storage. These results suggested that the MT treatment could activate the strong and rapid disease resistance upon the pathogenic infection by an induction of priming defence, by which the treatment resultantly maintained the overall quality in plums during the postharvest storage.
Effects of Salicylic Acid Treatment Combined with Freezing Point Storage on Postharst Quality of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Diaogan)
BULIGEN·Jialengbieke, REN Jianye, HU Zirui, BULIBULI·Kaman, WANG Wei
2022, 43(13): 336-344.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100246
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The Diaogan apricots were dipped in 2.0 mmol/L SA solution or distilled water as control for 10 min, then, stored separately at cold storage (4~6℃) freezing point storage (−1.5~−1℃) to study the effects of salicylic acid treatment combined with freezing point storage on the postharvest preservation of Diaogan apricots. The results showed that compared with cold storage, the Diaogan apricots stored at freezing point for 49 d was lower in decay rate and weight loss rate, higher in nutrient content, lower in hydrogen peroxide content and superoxide anion production rate, higher in antioxidant enzyme activity, and less in membrane damage. 2 mmol/L SA significantly inhibited the increase of decay rate and weight loss rate of apricots fruit during cold storage and freezing point storage (P<0.05), significantly decreased contents of hardness, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and titratable acid were decreased (P<0.05), significantly inhibited the increase of superoxide anion formation rate, hydrogen peroxide content, malondialdehyde content and cell membrane permeability (P<0.05), and significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) in the late storage period (P<0.05). The results showed that storage at freezing point was more beneficial to maintain better postharharvest quality of Diaogan apricots than cold storage. 2 mmol/L SA treatment could effectively delay the quality decline of Diaogan apricots during freezing point storage and cold storage, among them, the effects on the indexes of Diaogan apricots stored at freezing point was more obvious.
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Nutrition and Healthcare
Anti-inflammation Activity Evaluation of Apigenin-O-Glycosides and Apigenin-C-Glycosides
LI Hui, PAN Siyi, XU Xiaoyun
2022, 43(13): 345-352.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100016
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Objective: The anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 5-O-glucoside, vitexin and isovitexin were evaluated. Methods: Changes of protein in THP-1 cells pretreated with flavonoids were measured by Western blot test. The differences of cytokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: It showed that all the flavonoids tested could repress the gene expression of IL-10 (P<0.01). Vitexin and isovitexin inhibited the production of cyclooxygenase-2 as well (P<0.01). What’s more, isovitexin significantly suppressed the increases of interleukin-1β (P<0.01) and interleukin-6 (P<0.01). Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside only significantly inhibited TNF-α (P<0.01). Apart from IL-10 mRNA, apigenin 5-O-glucoside displayed no anti-inflammatory effects according to the other results of cytokine analyses. Furthermore, the structure of apigenin-C-glycoside substituted at position 8, namely isovitexin showed the strongest inhibition on nuclear translocation of P65 (P<0.01). However, this suppression effect of isovitexin on P65 was not through inhibiting upstream regulation proteins such as IκBα and IKKβ. Conclusion: In a word, compared with apigenin-O-glycosides, apigenin-C-glycosides especially isovitexin had a better anti-inflammatory activity based on cell line THP-1. But the anti-inflamamtion of isovitexin was not IκBα -dependent NF- κB signal pathway.
Study on the Mechanism of Guizhou Rosa roxburghii Radix on Ulcerative Colitis Based on TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway
CHEN Boyang, ZHAO Lingjie, LUO Yunfeng, GUAN Liancheng, YU Haiyang, ZHAO Jie, ZHANG Xufei, JIANG Zhibin, CHEN Yunzhi
2022, 43(13): 353-358.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100024
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Objective: To explore the mechanism of Guizhou Rosa roxburghii Radix in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in rats based on TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Methods: The ulcerative colitis model was established by gavage with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol solution, gavage with Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction high, medium and low dose groups (8, 4 and 2 g/kg) and salazosulfanil group (0.3 g/kg). Observation of the appearance, motor behaviour and blood stool of the rats. Serum and colon of rats were collected, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the colon of each group of rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNF-α levels in rats. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of rat colon Myd88, NF-κB p50, NF-κB p65, TLR4 mRNA expression. Protein immunoblotting (Western blot) was performed to detect Myd88, NF-κB p50, NF-κB p65, TLR4 protein expression in rat colon. Results: Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction significantly improved colonic inflammatory injury in rats with ulcerative colitis, especially in the high dose group of Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction. Compared with the model group, the Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction high-dose group showed significant improvement in colon pathological damage. Serum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction high-dose group (P<0.01); colon Myd88, NF-κB p50, TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly decreased (P<0.05); colon Myd88, NF-κB p50, NF-κB p65, TLR4 protein expression was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion: Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction can effectively alleviate TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis and ameliorate inflammatory damage. The mechanism of action of Rosa roxburghii Radix aqueous decoction intervention in ulcerative colitis may be related to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Protective Effect and Mechanism of D-ribose on Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity
XIAO Aiai, WANG Xueyan, WEN Min, WANG Zhengping
2022, 43(13): 359-366.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100074
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Objective: To study the protective effect and mechanism of D-ribose on Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Methods: Eight-week-old male ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group (Con), model (DOX) group, D-ribose low-dose group (LDR) and D-ribose high-dose group (HDR), with 10 mice in each group. DOX acute cardiotoxicity mouse model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of high dose doxorubicin (15 mg/kg). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity levels in serum and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in heart tissue were detected by the commercial kits. The pathological changes of myocardial tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin stain (HE) staining. Cardiac oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial tissue. The levels of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and cysteine-containing aspartate specific protease 3 (Caspase-3) were detected by Western blotting. Results: DOX could significantly reduce the body weight of mice (P<0.05), serum LDH activity was significantly increased (P<0.05), antioxidant enzyme activity significantly decreased (P<0.05); Oral D-ribose significantly decreased LDH levels (P<0.05) and increased antioxidant enzyme activity (P<0.05), increased Sirt1, PGC-1α, Bcl-2 protein expression levels (P<0.05), decreased Caspase-3, Bax protein expression levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: D-ribose could alleviate the DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity by activating Sirt1/PGC-1α pathway, inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Study on Preparation of Modified Soluble Dietary Fiber of Kidney Bean by Fermentation and Its Effect on Anti-exercise Fatigue
BAI Haijun, WANG Ying
2022, 43(13): 367-372.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100237
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To investigate the fermentation of the modified kidney bean dietary fiber influence on sports ability exercise fatigue, The experiment using modified kidney bean dietary fiber composite strains fermentation, the determination of its physical and chemical properties before and after fermentation was researched. And the motility of rats model was established with different doses of kidney bean dietary fiber (5.80, 2.90, 1.45 g/kg) by swimming exhaustion experiments. The changes of urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, liver glycogen and muscle glycogen were analyzed to explore their effects on exercise-induced fatigue. The results showed that the dietary fiber content of modified kidney bean was 18.32%, and the water holding capacity, swelling capacity and oil holding capacity were increased by 144.83%, 80.66% and 58.97%, respectively. Compared with model group, the high, medium and low dose group could prolong swimming exhaustion time, reduce the MDA content (P<0.05), improve the SOD and GSH-Px activity (P<0.05), and improve the muscle glycogen and the content of hepatic glycogen and store capacity. The effect of high dose group was the most significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, fermented modified kidney bean dietary fiber had a positive effect on anti-exercise fatigue, and could improve antioxidant capacity, protect muscle tissue and enhance exercise tolerance. It was of great significance to use human body as a kind of exercise nutritional supplement in the future.
Protective Effect of 6′′′-Feruloylspinosin on Aβ1-42-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells Injury
ZHANG Mei, ZHANG Yanqing, XIE Junbo, WANG Qing, QI Wuqin
2022, 43(13): 373-380.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120012
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Objective: To investigate the protective effects of 6′′′-feruloylspinosinon Aβ1-42-induced SH-SY5Y cells injury. Methods: SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with 6′′′-feruloylspinosin (1、5、10、20 and 40 μmol/L) for 2 h and then co-treated with 5 μmol/L of Aβ1-42 for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay; cell morphology was observed by Calcein-AM/PI assay; intracellular reactive oxygen species, malonic dialdehyde level, Glutathione peroxidaseactivity and mitochondrial membrane potential level were detected by the kit; expression of apoptosis-related proteins: Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 were detected by Western Blotting. Results: 6′′′-feruloylspinosin could inhibit Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis and improve cell viability (P<0.001); reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (P<0.001) and malondialdehyde (P<0.01) levels; increase glutathione peroxidase activity (P<0.001); upregulate cell mitochondrial membrane potential level (P<0.001); regulate apoptosis-related protein expression (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results validated that 6′′′-feruloylspinosin had a protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ1-42-induced damage, and the mechanism was that 6′′′-feruloylspinosin could alleviate oxidative damage and regulate the expression of apoptosis related proteins.
Correlation Analysis between the Active Ingredients and the Antioxidant or Cholate-binding Ability of Ethanol Extracts from Psoralea corylifolia L.
JIANG Xinyang, LIANG Jinyue, SHI Jitong, LIU Lanling, ZHANG Shanshan, ZHAO Pan, YAN Peizheng, ZHAO Dongsheng
2022, 43(13): 381-388.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010218
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Objective: The contents of main active ingredients, antioxidant and cholate binding ability of different ethanol extracts from Psoralea corylifolia L. were explored based on the mode of correlation of “components-efficacy”. Methods: Psoralea corylifolia L. was extracted with anhydrous ethanol, 75% ethanol, 50% ethanol and water. The contents of total flavonoids and total polyphenols in Psoralea corylifolia L. were determined. The antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities in vitro of Psoralea corylifolia L. were evaluated by three antioxidant systems and the binding ability of cholate salts, respectively, and the correlation analysis was conducted. Results: The contents of total flavonoids and total polyphenols in anhydrous ethanol extract were the highest, (50.317±0.018) mg/g and (3.860±0.045) mg/g, respectively. The 50% ethanol extract showed the best ability to scavenge ABTS· and DPPH·, the IC50 values were 0.76 and 1.63 mg/mL, respectively. The anhydrous ethanol extract showed the strongest reducing ability, the A0.5 value was 2.63 mg/mL. The water extract showed the strongest binding capacity to sodium cholate, the IC50 value was 0.67 mg/mL. The 50% ethanol extract showed the strongest binding capacity to sodium taurocholate and sodium glycinate, the IC50 values were 1.26 and 0.41 mg/mL, respectively. The correlation results showed that the content of total flavonoids of different ethanol extracts from Psoralea corylifolia L. had a significant positive correlation with DPPH· clearance rate and sodium taurocholate binding rate (P<0.05). And the content of total flavonoids and total polyphenols had a very significant positive correlation with reduction ability (P<0.01). While the content of total polyphenols had a significant negative correlation with sodium cholate binding rate (P<0.05). Conclusion : The 50% ethanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. has high content of active ingredients and the strongest antioxidant and cholate binding ability. It can be used as a potential important source of natural antioxidant and lipid-lowering active substances.
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Reviews
Application of Food Grade Complexes in the Delivery of Bioactive Substances
CHANG Yu, ZHENG Yimei, LUO Biying, TENG Hui, CHEN Lei
2022, 43(13): 389-399.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060017
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Bioactive substances are good raw materials for functional food development due to their anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities, but most of them are easy to decompose in the process of production, processing and storage. To address this problem, food-grade delivery systems have been designed around proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols, forming complexes that alter the functional and nutritional properties of foods. In this paper, the research progress of conjugation method, characterization and functional properties of binary and ternary food-grade complexes with different functional properties prepared from proteins, polysaccharides, polyphenols are reviewed, the main type of complexes as carriers and its application in bioactive substances transfer system are summarized, and the interaction between delivery system and human gastrointestinal tract are also summarized. The main problems to be paid attention to in preparation and analysis of complex as delivery system are emphasized and its application prospect is forecasted.
Research Progress on the Extraction Technology of Seabuckthorn Fruit Oil and the Application of Nutritional Factors
GAO Juanjuan, LI Dong, SU Dan, WU Tianqi, ZHAO Junmei, ZHANG Wenxuan, SONG Ying, GAO Shan
2022, 43(13): 400-407.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060224
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Seabuckthorn fruit oil is rich for bioactive substances, mainly including unsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, steroids and tocopherols, which has specific health functions and been widely used in medicine, food and cosmetics. This paper mainly introduces the five extraction processes of seabuckthorn fruit oil, which are organic solvent extraction, squeezing and centrifugation, enzymatic extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, and ultrasonic assisted method. The oil yield, advantages and disadvantages of different extraction processes of seabuckthorn fruit oil are compared. The functional components, health function and the development and utilization in various fields of sea buckthorn fruit oil are summarized. The paper provides theoretical basis for the development of seabuckthorn fruit oil industry.
Research Progress on Sodium Salt Reduction Strategies in Processed Meat Products
PI Ruobing, LI Dapeng, HONG Hui, DAI Ruitong
2022, 43(13): 408-415.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060248
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Sodium chloride has the functional properties of enhancing food flavor, improving food texture, inhibiting the growth of spoilage bacteria, and extending the shelf life of food. However, excessive intake of salt could lead to the increased risk of hypertension, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, it is very important to control the amount of sodium salt intake and seek suitable sodium salt substitutes, espically in the field of meat production and processing. By reviewing the existing domestic and foreign literatures, this article reviews the existing salt reduction strategies in meat products, summarizes the existing sodium salt substitute varieties, attributes and effects, as well as the application of ultrasound, ultra-high pressure and other emerging technologies in low-salt meat products. The paper aims to provide theoretical basis and development direction for the future low-salt meat products and to explore cost-effective sodium salt substitution strategies.
Research Progress of Extraction, Purification and Bioactivity of Ellagic Acid
WANG Jialuan, ZHAO Fengyi, ZHANG Chunhong, WU Wenlong
2022, 43(13): 416-424.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060276
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Plant kingdom is rich in many kinds of natural substances which are beneficial to human health and play a certain auxiliary function to human health. Ellagic acid is a natural polyphenol dilactone found in many fruits and nuts. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, inhibition of bacterial growth and other biological activities, and has great application potential in cancer treatment and disease prevention. Many scholars at home and abroad have conducted in-depth studies on the biological activities of ellagic acid, which has a wide application prospect in the treatment of human diseases, tumors and production and life. In this paper, the extraction and purification methods of ellagic acid, as well as the studies on anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and other biological activities of ellagic acid were summarized, providing certain reference for the subsequent research on ellagic acid.
Research Progress on Effects of High Pressure Homogenization on Structure and Fermentation Characteristics of Soy Protein
SUN Bingyu, LI Zhimin, LIU Linlin, LÜ Mingshou, ZHU Xiuqing, WANG Huan, SHAO Zhiyuan
2022, 43(13): 425-433.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070123
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In recent years, with the enthusiasm of research on "plant-based" food, the research on soy-based fermented yoghurt is gradually favored by people. In the food industry, soybean protein emulsion is often modified by high pressure homogenization technology to show excellent processing properties. Under the action of high pressure homogenization, the structure of protein aggregates unfolds, and the subunits on the polypeptide chain are dissociated and rearranged. High pressure homogenization can enhance the water holding capacity and sensory quality of sour soybean milk by improving the conformation of soybean protein. This paper mainly summarizes the research progress at home and abroad on the effects of high protein pressure homogenization on the conformation and fermentation characteristics of soybean protein, and analyzes the development trend in this field, which provides some help for the further study of soybean yoghurt.
Research Progress on the Browning Mechanism and Its Control Technology of Chinese Yam
LI Shanlin, ZHANG Yan, LIAO Na, ZHONG Lihuang, WANG Jiajia
2022, 43(13): 434-444.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070184
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Chinese yam is a kind of food with high nutritional value. Browning is one of the main problems affecting the quality of Chinese yam during processing and storage. It is of great significance to effectively control the browning of Chinese yam, maintain its color and nutritional characteristics, and improve its shelf life in order to guarantee the quality of Chinese yam and improve the acceptance of consumers. On the basis of previous studies, the mechanism of enzymatic browning and non-enzymatic browning of Chinese yam are described in this paper. The mechanism of enzymatic browning of Chinese yam is explained by three elements of enzymatic browning including phenolic substrate, enzyme and oxygen, and the mechanism of Maillard reaction and non-enzymatic browning of caramelization in processing and storage of Chinese yam are introduced. In this paper, the control effects of different browning control techniques on Chinese yam are summarized, the existing problems are analyzed, and the future prospects are prospected, in order to provide reference for the research and application development of control techniques on Chinese yam browning.
Research Progress on Preparation and Application in Food Industry of Bone Collagen
WU Wenxia, YU Tonghui, ZHU Yi, WANG Qingling, LU Shiling, LIU Chengjiang, DONG Juan
2022, 43(13): 445-454.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070289
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Bone is the main by-product of animal after slaughtering and is rich in collagen. First, the preparation of bone collagen, involved pretreatment of bone raw materials, extraction, isolation and purification of bone collagen, are introduced. Then its application in food industry including functional food and food packaging, are reviewed in this article from the aspects of structure and properties of bone collagen. This paper will provide ideas for the efficient utilization of animal bone collagen.
Research Progress on Health Mechanism of the Food Source Anti-constipation Factors
MAO Kai, LEI Zhe, YANG Chun
2022, 43(13): 455-465.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070307
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There are different subtypes of functional constipation, and the patient's condition is complex and difficult to cure, so symptomatic intake of food source anti-constipation factors is the best daily maintenance means for patients with functional constipation. However, the study of food source anti-constipation factors is still limited. Systematic classification, in-depth understanding of the health mechanism of various types of factors, and comprehensive mastery of anti-constipation efficacy evaluation methods will contribute to the in-depth study of food source anti-constipation factors and the development of anti-constipation functional foods. This study proposes a classification method of food source anti-constipation factors, and speculated that there are symptomatic types of constipation for various anti-constipation factors. In addition, the health mechanism of different types of food source anti-constipation factors that have been previously reported are discussed, and the evaluation methods of anti-constipation efficacy currently used are summarized. In view of the existing problems in the current research area, at last, this paper prospected the development direction of food source anti-constipation factors in the future.
Research Progress on Functional Active Components and Its Efficacy in Rice Bran
LI Xiangfei, SHEN Dan, HUANG Junkai, LU Yingjian
2022, 43(13): 466-474.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070310
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Rice bran is a kind of agricultural by-product, which is rich in renewable organic carbon sources and mainly used in feed and fertilizer production today. It has been reported that rice bran is rich in various active ingredients such as dietary fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, which have significant physiological activities such as anti-oxidation, lowering blood lipid and blood sugar. This paper starts with the bioactive components of rice bran, analyzes its the functional properties of rice bran and its active components in anti-oxidation, hypoglycemia, anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, immunomodulating, antitumor, etc, in order to improve the application value of the bioactive components of rice bran and provide theoretical basis for the effective utilization and industrialization of the following agricultural by-products.
Application and Research Status of Flash Profile in Food Research and Development
CHEN Yixin, LAN Yibin, WEN Yaqin, LIU Yaran, CHEN Kuixun, SONG Hao, ZHU Baoqing
2022, 43(13): 475-483.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070320
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Flash Profile is a rapid descriptive approach that can be used for food sensory evaluation. This method refers to the relative differences among products by describing the sensory attributes of a group of products and ranking them according to the strength of these attributes. The development context, operation steps, data processing process and data analysis of Flash Profile are introduced in this article. Combined with its application in food industry, the applicable product types of this method and its advantages and disadvantages compared with other methods are also presented. And the development trend of Flash Profile is also included. The aim of these works is to provide reference for food processing enterprises and researchers in further research.
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