### Science and Technology of Food Industry

ISSN 1002-0306
CN   11-1759/TS

Vol.44, No.6
March 2023
Semimonthly
ISSN 1002-0306
CN 11-1759/TS
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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In order to improve the utilization rate of silver carp fat, a by-product of silver carp surimi processing, the modified starch-based Pickering emulsion was prepared with six modified starches as solid particles and silver carp oil as oil phase. The effects of starch type, starch amount (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, w/w), oil-to-water ratio (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 w/w) and ionic strength (NaCl concentration: 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mol/L) on the emulsion physicochemical properties (including particle size, Zeta potential, emulsifying properties, stability, rheological properties, and microstructure) were investigated. The results showed that, among the six modified starches, the octenyl succinic anhydride modified corn starch had the smallest particle size (146.73 nm) and the largest contact angle (71.5°), and its Pickering emulsion had the best stability. The oil-water ratio and starch amount significantly affected the physiochemical properties of the prepared emulsion, and the emulsion had gel properties at the higher level of oil-water ratio (0.5~0.6) and starch amount (4%~5%). The addition of an appropriate amount (0.3~0.5 mol/L) of sodium chloride could promote the micro-flocculation of the emulsion and enhance the stability of the emulsion. The emulsion microstructure observed by confocal laser microscopic (CLSM) revealed that the particle size of the emulsion droplets decreased with the increase of starch amount, and the oil droplets were completely wrapped by modified starch particles and formed a dense interfacial film at the addition of 2%~5% starch. In conclusion, the better performance of Pickering emulsion was achieved at the oil-water ratio 0.5, starch amount 4% and sodium chloride concentration 0.4 mol/L, respectively. The study provided a reference for the preparation of fish oil Pickering emulsion and improve its application in functional food.
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In this study, Jinta and Yanhong chilli peppers from Shandong Province were selected in order to explore the changes of bacterial community and quality of chilli peppers during salting process. Eleven indicators of bacterial community, titratable acid, pH, moisture content, water activity, sodium chloride, reducing sugars, spiciness, organic acids, nucleotides and amino acid nitrogen were monitored in samples of Jinta and Yanhong chilli peppers within 12 weeks during salting. The results showed that the third week of salting of the two kinds of chilli peppers was the inflection point of bacterial dynamic change. Before that, the number of salting beneficial bacteria such as Weisseria spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was high, and after that, the number of Enterobacter spp. increased, possibly because the two peppers were not fermented enough to inhibit the growth of Enterobacter spp.. The fourth week of salting of the two kinds of chilli peppers was the inflection point of quality and flavor change. Before that, the levels of reducing sugars, lactic acid, acetic acid, nucleotides and amino acid nitrogen, which gave good flavour to the salted chilli peppers, were high and the sodium chloride levels were appropriate. Therefore, the optimum salting time for the Jinta and Yanhong chilli peppers was 3 to 4 weeks. And the water activity and the moisture content determine the degree of salting. The water activity and moisture content of Jinta salted chilli pepper were stable at about 0.80 and 69.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of Yanhong salted chilli pepper at 0.78 and 63.5%, so it was speculated that Jinta salted chilli pepper had a higher fermentation degree. This study provided data and technical support for the production optimization of salted chilli pepper processing enterprises and theoretical support for the promotion of high-quality development of salted chilli pepper products.
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of fungaltoxin with strong toxicity and strong carcinogenicity. To screen degrading bacteria of AFB1, co-culture of fungi strains which were stored in laboratory and AFB1 was carried out and the strains with the highest degradation rate were chosen. Species of the chosen strains were determined through morphology and ITS rDNA analysis. After separation of different components (bacterial suspension, thalli, spore suspension and fermentation liquor) in strains, the effective components for AFB1 degradation were explored, and the effective components thalli was broken for further investigation. Results showed that the AFB1 degrading rates by Penicillium herquei MD1 bacterial suspension cultured by 72 h and the unbroken thalli were 98.15% and 28.20%, respectively. The degradation of AFB1 was better after the fragmentation of the thalli, and the degradation rate of AFB1 was 55.40% after 24 h of incubation. Therefore, the active components in MD1 bacterial suspension and thalli can degrade AFB1 effectively. The screened MD1 expands the degrading bacterial library of AFB1 and provide some references to biological degradation of AFB1.
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Objective: To optimize the cellulase extraction process of crude polysaccharide from Semen Cassiae and study its antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods: On the basis of single factor test results, Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction process of crude polysaccharide from Semen Cassiae with enzymolysis time, enzymolysis temperature, enzyme dosage, liquid-to-material ratio and enzymolysis pH as independent variables, and the yield of polysaccharide as response value. DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging rates were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides from Semen Cassiae in vitro. Results: The optimal cellulase extraction conditions of crude polysaccharide from Semen Cassiae were as follows: Enzyme dosage was 1.4%, enzymolysis time was 50 min, liquid-to-material ratio was 24:1 mL/g, enzymolysis pH was 5.4, and enzymolysis temperature was 48 ℃. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharide from Semen Cassiae was 11.67%, and the theoretical prediction value of regression model was 11.91%, the error between the two conditions was less than 5%. Crude polysaccharide from Semen Cassiae had strong scavenging effects on DPPH free radical and hydroxyl free radical, with median inhibitory concentrations of 1.025 mg/mL and 0.894 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Cellulase enzymatic method can significantly improve the yield of crude polysaccharide from Semen Cassiae, the process is simple and feasible, and the crude polysaccharide obtained from Semen Cassiae has antioxidant activity in vitro.
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Objective: Ruditapes philippinarum was used as raw material to investigate the preparation process of peptide and its enhanced immunomodulatory effect. Methods: The hydrolysis degree of protein was used as an evaluation index to screen the optimal protease. The single factor experiment and response surface test were used to determine the best enzymatic hydrolysis condition. The amino acid composition was analyzed using amino acid analyzer. And organ/body weight ratio, spleen lymphocyte transformation test, serum hemolysin experiment, peritoneal macrophage swallowing chicken red blood cell test, and NK cell activation experiment were used to assess the clam peptide enhanced immune activity. Results: Trypsin was the most suitable protease in the preparation of protein peptides from Ruditapes philippinarum. The optimal enzymatic conditions were temperature 48.4 ℃, pH8.0, enzyme concentration 3795 U/g, solid-liquid ratio 1:2, and hydrolysis time 4 hours. The average molecular weight of protein-peptide was 418 Da with 15.33% hydrolysis degree under optimal enzymatic conditions. The amino acid composition of the clam peptide was reasonable and the proportion of essential amino acids reached 41.48%. The organ ratio of BALB/c mice did not change significantly as compared to the control group after receiving various doses of oral clam peptides for 30 days. Furthermore, the serum hemolysin levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased of low dose (700 mg/(kg·d)) and high dose (2800 mg/(kg·d)) groups and the phagocytic rate of peritoneal macrophage swallowing chicken red blood cells was significantly (P<0.01) increased of low dose (700 mg/(kg·d)) and middle dose (1400 mg/(kg·d)) groups, which indicated the enhanced immunomodulatory effect of the clam peptide. Conclusions: The clam peptide produced using this process shows a high degree of hydrolysis, a low molecular weight, and a concentrated distribution with enhanced immune function. It has the potential to produce healthy foods or foods for special dietary uses.
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To explore the process of extraction and antioxidant activity of products from marine sponge, three influencing factors, ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic power were investigated respectively taking DPPH radicals scavenging rate of ethanol extracts from H. erectus as the response value, and the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction process was determined by Box-Behnken design. The extract obtained from H. erectus by the best ultrasonic-assisted process was detected for antioxidant activity, which included the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, ABTS+• and •OH. The effects of the extract on viability of oxidative damage L02 cells and content of intracellular ROS were detected by constructing a cell model of H2O2 induced oxidative damage. The results showed that the optimized process conditions were as follows: ultrasonic temperature was 57 ℃, ultrasonic time was 60 min, and ultrasonic power was 490 W. Under these conditions, the DPPH scavenging rate of the extract was (61.98±1.52)%, which agreed well with the predicted value of 62.16%. The extract showed good scavenging effects on DPPH radical, ABTS+• and •OH. The cell viability of treated groups was significantly higher than that of the model group (P<0.05), and the intensity of intracellular ROS fluorescence was significantly lower than that of the model group (P<0.01). In general, the product from H. erectus had a wide range of antioxidant activity, and it had a protective effect on H2O2 induced oxidative damage in L02 cells. This study provides theoretical support for the research and development of antioxidant food additives.
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Wine mud is the precipitate produced during fermentation and storage, which contains pectin, protein, polyphenols and other substances. To realize the value-added utilization by separating and extracting the effective components of the mud in white wine production, in this study, the effects of material-liquid ratio, pH, extraction temperature and extraction time on the yield of pectin were investigated by the single-factor test, the extraction condition was optimized by the response surface method, the decolorization of pectin was carried out using macroporous resin, and the structure was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and HNMR. The results showed that the yield of pectin was 6.48% on the condition of wine mud:water=1:14 g/mL, pH was 2.0, extraction temperature was 65 ℃ and extraction time was 90 min, which was near to the predicted value of 6.50% by the response surface model. The factors on the yield followed as material-liquid ratio>extraction temperature>extraction time>pH. Decolorized by D101 macroporous resin under the condition that decolorization temperature was 25 ℃, pH was 2.0, decolorization flow rate was 3 BV/h and desorption solution was 60% (v/v) ethanol, desorption flow rate was 3 BV/h, the decolorization rate could reach 91.75%. IR and HNMR analysis showed that pectin extracted was α-galacturonic acid. This study would provide a reference for the separation and utilization of wine mud.
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In order to evaluate the harm of pesticide residues and explore the high-risk hazard factors and risk levels in different varieties of Xinjiang red jujube (Dong jujube, Hui jujube and Jun jujube), 93 pesticides were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The differences of pesticide residues in different varieties of jujube were compared, and the risk of pesticide residues in jujube samples were evaluated and ranked. A total of 16 kinds of pesticides were detected in 85 red jujube samples. The detection rates and types of pesticide residues in different varieties of red jujube were different. The detection rates of pesticide residues in Dong jujube were 93.33% and 15 kinds of pesticides were detected, which were significantly higher than those in Hui jujube and Jun jujube. The risk of chronic dietary intake and acute dietary intake of pesticides detected in jujube were far less than 100%, which was in an acceptable range. The high and medium risk pesticides in Dong jujube were methamamectin benzoate, mite, biphenthrin, thiophosphate, acetamidine and permethrin. The medium risk pesticides in Hui jujube and Jun jujube were: phosphorus, propylene bromphosphorus and acetamidine. There were high risk and medium risk samples in the Dong jujube samples, but the Hui jujube and Jun jujube samples were both medium risk and low risk samples. The quality and safety of jujube in Xinjiang is generally good, but the risk of pesticide residue in Dong jujube is generally high, which should be paid attention to.
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This study aimed to establish an evaluation method for quality uniqueness and batch stability of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand. In this study, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprints of TCM were used to establish a fingerprint of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand. As well as, comprehensive evaluation quality uniqueness and batch stability of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand was conducted based on similarity evaluation and chemical pattern recognition (hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis). The results showed that evaluation standard for quality uniqueness and batch stability of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand was fingerprint similarity greater than 0.99, which could effectively distinguish Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand from other brands. The results of chemical pattern recognition showed that Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand and other brands of Maotai-flavor Baijiu were obviously classified. Thus, the quality uniqueness and batch stability of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brands could be effectively evaluated by the fingerprint similarity and chemical pattern recognition. 17 substances were found by principal component analysis, which caused the difference between Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand and other brands. Hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid, ethyl ester, 1-hexanol, acetic acid, benzeneacetic acid, ethyl ester, propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, butanoic acid, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-, n-propyl acetate, 1-propanol, 2-butanol , propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, ethyl ester, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, ethyl ester, propanoic acid, ethyl ester, 1-butanol were included. These substances were the inherent embodiment of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand uniqueness. This study provides theoretical basis and technical support for the quality control of Maotai-flavor Baijiu of specific brand.
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The method for the determination of migration of lactide in polylactic acid (PLA) food contact material by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established. Olive oil simulants were extracted by acetonitrile, centrifuged and filtered, and then analyzed by GC-MS. Isooctane simulants were directly filtered and analyzed by GC-MS. The method could achieve the determination of lactide migration in PLA. The limit of detection was 0.01 mg/kg and the recoveries at spiked levels were 80.0%~120.0%. The relative standard deviations were 2.6%~6.6% (n=6). Seven PLA samples were analyzed by the method. The detection rate was 85.7% and the range of concentration were 0.033~1.1 mg/kg. The method had the advantages of high sensitivity, high recovery and accuracy. The detection limit can meet the requirements of regulations. The method was suitable for migration of lactide in PLA food contact materials. The results showed that the detection rate of migration of lactide in PLA samples was high and migration of lactide should be paid attention to. Compared with isooctane, the migration of olive oil in the sample was higher than that of isooctane under the substitution condition due to the higher migration temperature of olive oil.
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Objective: To establish a method to detect four genes: qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxA, oqxB, among the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes carried by foodborne Salmonella by applying a novel liquid-phase chip technique. Methods: For the four PMQR genes carried by foodborne Salmonella: qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxA, and oqxB, corresponding primers and microspheres were designed, and liquid-phase microarray technology was used to perform specificity experiments on seven standard strains. Reproducibility and sensitivity experiments were performed on four foodborne Salmonella strains containing one PMQR gene each. 71 quinolone resistant Salmonella strains from foodborne risk monitoring were tested, and a comparison experiment with ordinary PCR was carried out. Results: A method for the detection of four PMQR genes, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxA and oqxB, in foodborne Salmonella was successfully established by liquid-phase microarray technology. The LOD (limit of detection) of qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxA and oqxB were 5, 25, 10 and 10 CFU/mL respectively. The median fluorescence values (MFI) of all positive determinations were ≥5 times those of the negative control group. The coefficients of variation (CV) of the repeatability experiments were less than 5%. In the specificity experiments, all quinolone resistant Salmonella strains were detected, and no cross-reactivity with other non-target bacteria was observed. The detection rate of qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxA and oqxB were 29.6% (21/71), 35.2% (25/71), 28.2% (20/71), 23.9% (17/71) respectively. The coincidence rate between the liquid chip technology and PCR was 100%. Conclusion: The experimentally established liquid-phase chip technique for the detection of foodborne Salmonella plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxA and oqxB is characterized by high sensitivity, good specificity, stability, and accurate results, which can provide technical support for the detection of foodborne Salmonella PMQR genes and the monitoring of drug resistance.
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In order to elucidate the influences of pre-harvest spraying diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on the disease occurrence in longan fruit during postharvest storage and its possible mechanism, fruit of ‘Fuyan’ longan at 70, 90 and 110 days after full bloom was sprayed with DA-6 solution at the concentration of 10 mg/kg, and the fruit sprayed with distilled water served as control. The harvested longan fruit were stored at (28±1) ºC. During storage, the index of longan fruit disease, the contents of lignin and total phenolics, the activities of phenylalnine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), chitinase (CHI) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU) in longan pericarp were evaluated. When stored for 6 d, the fruit disease index in 10 mg/kg DA-6-treated longan was 11.59% lower than control longans. The results also indicated that, contrasted to the control samples, during postharvest storage, pre-harvest spraying DA-6 could lower index of fruit disease, reduce activities of PPO and POD, but retain higher activities of PAL, GLU and CHI, as well as maintain higher levels of lignin and total phenolics. These findings suggested that pre-harvest spraying DA-6 could effectively suppress disease development of postharvest longan fruit, which was due to DA-6 induced-the enhanced activities of disease resistance related-enzymes and the reduced activities of phenols oxidation related-enzymes, the increased levels of disease-resistant substances, and then the enhanced disease resistance.
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2023, 44(6).
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2023, 44(6).
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2023, 44(6): 1-7.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060273
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To investigate the effect of zein addition on rheological properties of buckwheat-based gluten-free dough, atmosphere puffed tartary buckwheat flour was mixed with common buckwheat flour at a ratio of 1:1 to make a mxied base flour (MBF). Zein was plasticized with 90% ethanol solution, and then 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (MBF based) of the plasticized zein was mixed with MBF and water, respectively, to make a buckwheat-based gluten-free dough (BBGD) with gradient content of zein. The static rheological properties of dough (texture properties, tensile properties and stress relaxation properties), dynamic rheological properties, optical properties (chromaticity and reflectivity) and microstructure were measured. Results showed that, with the increasing of zein content from 0% to 20%, the hardness of BBGD decreased from 482.38 g to 346.60 g, while elasticity, tensile distance, and tensile strength increased from 0.21 to 0.29, 15.44 to 38.16 mm, and 13.10 to 72.04 g, respectively. The residual stress, viscoelastic coefficient and relaxation time increased significantly compared with the control (P<0.05), but decreased gradually with the increasing of zein addition. The G' and tanδ values, surface brightness, and reflectance rate of the dough were significantly improved, and the protein fiber was obviously observed in the microstructure compared with the control. The above results showed that zein could effectively improve the defects of poor adhesion and extensibility of buckwheat gluten-free dough. This study would provide a new way for improving the structure and processing properties of gluten-free foods.
2023, 44(6): 8-15.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070044
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This research aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of fermented rice buckwheat. A high-fat model of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was established by high sugar (10 mmol/L) induction. After the treatment of fermented rice buckwheat, its effects on the longevity, motility, egg production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, resistance to oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme activity of high-fat C. elegans were determined. At the same time, its effect on the triglyceride and free fatty acid content in high-fat C. elegans were examined. The results showed that the maximum life span of high-fat C. elegans intervened by fermented rice buckwheat significantly increased by 30.90% (P<0.01), significantly increased motility by 28.57% (P<0.01), and increased egg production (P>0.05). Furthermore, fermented rice buckwheat could significantly increase the antioxidant enzyme activity (P<0.01), reduce malondialdehyde content and ROS levels (P<0.01), and significantly enhance their ability to resist oxidative stress (P<0.01). In addition, fermented rice buckwheat could also significantly reduce the triglyceride and free fatty acid content of high-fat C. elegans, respectively, reduced by 56.58% and 130.54% (P<0.01). In summary, fermented rice buckwheat exhibited a lipid-lowering effect by enhancing resistance to oxidative stress, reducing fat deposition, and improving the antioxidant enzyme activity of high-fat C. elegans.
2023, 44(6): 16-23.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100234
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In order to investigate the in vitro digestion products of fat in the sorghum and rice mixture and its oxidative stability, sorghum and rice were compounded and cured in 1:4 and 1:1 mass ratios to simulate in vitro digestion. The fat digestion products of the sorghum and rice mixtures were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their oxidative stability was investigated using lipid peroxide values and malondialdehyde concentrations as indicators. The results showed that, the 1:1 and 1:4 compounded rice contained 25 kinds of fatty acids after digestion by gastrointestinal fluid, of which the major fatty acids were palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 34.34% and 28.50% of the total. The contents of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid were 91.41, 3.05 and 59.36, 1.83 μg/g, respectively. All were significantly higher than the rice group (P<0.05). In addition, the digested intestinal fluid peroxide values of 33.83 and 43.16 nmol/g and the malondialdehyde levels of 28.17 and 27.72 nmol/g in the 1:1 and 1:4 mixtures were lower than that in the sorghum for total oxidation. In summary, consumption of the sorghum and rice mixture improved the composition of dietary fatty acids consumed compared to rice alone, and it also reduced the accumulation of lipid oxidation products absorbed by the body compared to sorghum alone.
2023, 44(6): 24-32.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050328
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China has a large population and food safety is important to people's livelihood. The recurring food safety problems in recent years are worth thinking about. It is an urgent problem to address food safety issues. The establishment of food safety traceability system is an extremely effective measure to deal with food safety problems. It can solve the security problems in the information field, reduce the risk of harm and give consumers a real sense of security. However, there are still some deficiencies in the existing food safety traceability system, including adverse selection, resource waste and trust crisis caused by information asymmetry, and blockchain technology can just solve most of these problems. With the development of information technology and the improvement of digital infrastructure, the value of data information is being gradually mined. The combination of blockchain technology and food safety traceability is the important achievement of "Internet+", and the control and development of food safety traceability technology would stride over a new level.
2023, 44(6): 33-40.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050339
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In order to strengthen the high-value processing and utilization of marine by-products, shrimp by-products were used in this study. The autolysis reaction was carried out in a water bath at 50 ℃ and pH(7.81~7.83), then the enzymatic hydrolysate was heated in water bath at 95 ℃ for 20 min to inactivate endogenous enzymes. This paper studied the changes in the polypeptide composition of the enzymatic hydrolysis products during the process, and screened the antifreeze peptide sequences based on the activity prediction platform, and provided a method for screening active peptides with high efficiency. When the autolysis treatment was 0~3 h, the content of degree of hydrolysis (DH) and TCA soluble peptides in the enzymatic hydrolyzate increased sharply, reaching 49.8% and 26.1 mg/g, respectively, and then the growth rate slowed down. 1301 peptides were detected in the 0.5 h enzymatic hydrolysis product (A-0.5), and 197 in the 3 h enzymatic hydrolysis product (A-3). The content of peptides greater than 1600 Da in A-0.5 reached 69.5%, while the peptides in A-3 were dominated by 600~1600 Da. Based on the activity prediction platform Cryoprotect, 7 sequences of QVHPDTGISS, GYGCARPNYPGV, TTGEVCDSGDGVTH, EQICINFCNEK, DEYEESGPGIVH, DIDNDGFLDK and DIDNNGFLDK were screened as antifreeze peptides, and the source of the peptides was obtained by enzyme cleavage simulation.
2023, 44(6): 41-48.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060165
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As a new technology in the field of food science, three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has tremendous development potential due to its rapid prototyping capabilities, suitability for complex structures, and customization. Proteins, lipids, and other edible substances are generally used as materials in 3D food printing, but not all ingredients can be printed or processed well. 3D food printing technology, the properties of 3D printing materials, common food additives and their effects on rheological properties, processing properties, and nutritional properties of print materials are reviewed in this paper. This study would provide a scientific basis for the application of 3D food printing technology in the food field and theoretical references.
2023, 44(6): 49-57.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050156
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The research is aim to screen out a technology which is suitable for producing a kind of raw purple sweet potato flour (RPSPF) with high anthocyanin content and low gelatinization degree (GD) in industry. Therefore, the changes of anthocyanins, GD, sensory score and comprehensive score of purple sweet potato flour (PSPF) prepared by hot-air drying (HD), microwave drying (MD), and combined hot-air and microwave drying (HD-MD) were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the optimal HD condition was 40 ℃ for 8 h. At the moment, the anthocyanin content was 1.648 mg/g, the GD was 23.39%, and the comprehensive score was 97.01 points. It had the best quality but took a lot of time. The optimal MD condition was 420 W for 10 min, the anthocyanin content of PSPF was 2.645 mg/g, the GD rose to 93.33%, and the comprehensive score was 82.00 points. But the GD of PSPF prepared by MD was widely too high to produce RPSPF. The optimal HD-MD was 50 ℃ drying to the 40% moisture content, and then converted to 280 W microwave drying the moisture content to less than 8%. Then the anthocyanin content was 1.161 mg/g, the GD was 59.11%, and the comprehensive score of PSPF was 84.04 points. HD-MD has a simple operation and control. In addition, it can ensure the quality of RPSPF on the premise of extremely shortening the drying time. In conclusion, HD-MD is suitable for rapid industrial production.
2023, 44(6): 58-65.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050189
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In order to comprehensive evaluate the quality of Ficus hirta Vahl., which were dried under sun, fumigated by sulfur dioxide, dried by vacuum freezing, and dried by hot air at 50 ℃, the contents of psoralen, total polyphenols, total flavones, soluble sugars and volatile components were determined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that 22, 19, 15 and 12 h was needed to reduce the moisture content of Ficus hirta Vahl. to 15% (safe storage moisture content), respectively. When Ficus hirta Vahl. were dried by sun drying, sulfur dioxide fumigated drying, vacuum freezing drying and 50 ℃ hot air drying, the contents of psoralen were 0.49, 0.60, 0.35 and 0.71 mg/g, respectively. The content of total polyphenols were 1.50, 3.95, 1.44 and 1.59 mg/g, respectively. The content of total flavonoids were 3.91, 4.65, 1.19, 1.55 mg/g, respectively. The content of soluble sugars were 94.95, 83.83, 86.76, 82.19 mg/g, respectively. GC-MS results showed that the relative contents of volatile components were 75.20% , 70.99% , 57.18% and 69.36% respectively in the samples dried by sun-drying, fumigation-sulfur drying, vacuum freeze-drying and 50 ℃ hot-air drying. In actual production, if the weather was fine, sun drying would be the most economical and environmentally friendly drying method. In case of overcast and rainy weather, 50 ℃ hot air drying would be used.
2023, 44(6): 66-73.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050325
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To improve the utilization of apple pomace, the extracted crude polysaccharide from apple pomace was added to fermented milk and its effects was studied. The parameters of fermented milk tested including lactic acid bacteria number, titration acidity, pH value, water holding capacity, color, texture, storage modulus and loss modulus, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the addition of 0.06%~0.14% apple pomace crude polysaccharide (APCP) significantly increased the number of viable bacteria and acidity of fermented milk, and improved its water holding capacity (P<0.05). When the addition of APCP was 0.10%, the hardness and chewiness were improved the most, and the sensory score (90.8) as well. The addition of APCP improved the gel properties of yogurt and increased its storage modulus G' and loss modulus G". At the same time, the antioxidant activity in vitro of fermented milk significantly increased (P<0.05), and the antioxidant activity was positively correlated with the addition amount. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the reuse of apple pomace and the development of functional fermented milk.
2023, 44(6): 74-81.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050336
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Chickpeas have attracted wide attention of researchers owing to their high nutritional value and low glycemic index. In present study, intact cells isolated from Desi chickpeas were set as the whole chickpea food model to reveal the structure and in vitro digestion kinetics changes of starches in Desi chickpeas subjected to different thermal treatments. The results showed that starch granules in all cell samples were not fully gelatinizatized with certain amounts of relative crystallinity remained, indicating the strong resistance of cells to the thermal treatment. With the temperature of thermal treatment increased, the gelatinization temperature of starches in cell samples enhanced and the enthalpy value decreased. And no significant changes was observed for the enthalpy value of cell samples treated with 100 ℃ including 100D and 70D-100 (ΔH<1.0 J/g), whereas two endothermic peaks were observed for the pressure-heated cell samples (Pre-D). The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in vitro digestion kinetics showed that cell samples with lower methyl esterification degree exhibited relatively higher digestion rate and extent. This result indicated that the cell wall structural changes induced by different thermal processing would cause a remarkable impact on the enzyme susceptibility to starch substrates in cells when compared with the remained crystal structure of starches. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the processing of slowly digested chickpea foods.
2023, 44(6): 82-88.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050354
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In order to explore the effect of piperine-corn starch complex on its structure and physicochemical properties at sub-gelatinization temperature, corn starch was used in this study to prepare sub-gelatinized corn starch-piperine complexes at 60 °C. Gelatinization viscometer, differential scanning calorimetry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the complex. The results showed that piperine was successfully loaded on the sub-gelatinized corn starch with the loading rate of 39.45%. The scanning electron microscope results showed that piperine was successfully loaded in the swelled cracks of starch granules. The particle size increased from 15.20 μm (natural corn starch) to 25.80 μm (sub-gelatinized corn starch) and 81.90 μm (sub-gelatinized corn starch-piperine complex). The addition of piperine reduced the peak viscosity and trough viscosity of the sub-gelatinized corn starch. No new group or chemical bond was observed in the infrared spectrum of the complex while the addition of piperine enhanced the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding between corn starch and piperine. X-ray diffraction showed that the relative crystallinity was increased from 23.52% (native corn starch) to 28.15% (sub-gelatinized corn starch-piperine complex) while the crystalline structure of the corn starch was not changed during the sub-gelatinized treatment. Compared to the native corn starch, the gelatinization enthalpy of the sub-gelatinized corn starch and the sub-gelatinized corn starch-piperine complex significantly decreased. The addition of piperine showed little effect on the structure of the sub-gelatinized corn starch, but it showed a significant impact on its physicochemical properties. This study would provide an important basis for the interaction and complex mechanism between starch and piperine.
2023, 44(6): 89-95.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050357
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In order to explore the effects of different pretreatment methods (breaking skin, beating pulp, filtering, etc.) on the quality of blueberry powder, vacuum freeze-drying technology was used to prepare blueberry powder, and its physical properties, active components and antioxidant capacity were determined. Meanwhile, the main groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results were as follows: The physical properties and antioxidant capacity of blueberry powder prepared by different pretreatment methods were different. Through infrared spectroscopy, the main groups of the three blueberry powders did not change significantly. The whole fruit powder (WP) had good dispersity and the highest contents of total phenol (5.48 mg/g) and anthocyanin (0.69 mg/g), and the strongest antioxidant capacity. Fruit pulp powder (PP) had the lowest water content (5.47%) and the highest solubility (71.38%). Fruit juice powder (JP) had the lowest average particle size (98.62 μm) and the highest glass transition temperature (43.71 ℃). Although WP had lower solubility, it had the strongest antioxidant capacity and could be used for processing nutritional fortifier. PP and JP had good physical properties and high solubility. Besides direct consumption, they could also be pressed for tablet processing or used as raw materials for further processing of solid drinks. The three kinds of blueberry powder had its own advantages and could be developed according to the actual situation.
2023, 44(6): 96-104.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060216
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To solve the quality problems of whole wheat fresh wet noodles (WWN) such as easy breakage and rough texture when steamed, the Auricularia auricula polysaccharide (Aap) were prepared by using hot water extraction, and the effects of Aap on the quality of cooking, texture stretching and sensory characteristics of WWN were investigated in this paper. The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the cooking breakage rate of WWN with Aap was significantly reduced, and the texture and sensory quality were significantly improved. In particular, the breakage rate of WWN with 1% Aap decreased by 28.3% and the cooking loss decreased by 19.9% compared with the blank control group. Meanwhile, the relative crystallinity of wheat starch in WWN with 1% Aap decreased by 23.7% and the wheat starch swelling potential increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with WWN. In addition, the hardness of WWN with 1% Aap decreased by 15.6% and the elasticity increased by 48.1% compared with WWN, which obtained the highest overall score of 87.48 in the sensory evaluation. Therefore, the addition of 1% Aap was able to improve the cooking quality, textural characteristics and sensory quality of WWN. This study would provide a theoretical basis for whole wheat product quality improvement technology.
2023, 44(6): 105-112.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060330
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Using egg white proteins as raw materials (EWPs), this study investigated the effects of glactooligosaccharides (GOS)-induced protein glycosylation by hydrothermal processing on the gelling properties and gel microstructures of EWPs, and characterized the gelling mechanisms. This article first studied the effects of GOS amounts and hydrothermal conditions on the hardness and elasticity of EWP-GOS conjugates (EGCs), then assessed the color differences, water-holding capacity, rheology, intermolecular forces and microstructure of EGCs using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, rheometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that, GOS addition and heat induction conditions could significantly (P<0.05) affect the texture characteristics of composite gel. In comparison with EWP gel, the EGCs prepared at optimal conditions had increased hardness by 68.30%, elasticity by 15.05% and water-holding capacity by 27.54%, respectively, while the whiteness decreased by 23.37%. After protein glycosylation of EWPs, hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonding were enhanced. Covalent interactions were found between the carbonyl groups of GOS and primary amino groups of EWPs, which gave rise to strengthened microstructure and higher water-holding capacities. This study would provide the theoretical foundation to the preparation and application of egg white protein glycosylation by hydrothermal processing.
2023, 44(6): 113-120.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070077
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In this study, the effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum aqueous extract (ZBAE) with the addition of 0, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0% on the characteristics of mandarin fish surimi gel, including water-holding capacity, gel strength, texture, whiteness, secondary structure and microstructure were performed. The results showed that the fish surimi gel's water-holding capacity, gel strength, hardness, and adhesion presented a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing of ZBAE, which had a maximum value of 0.25%. Also, FTIR analysis showed that α-helix, β-fold, and random coil structure exerted a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and the content of β-fold and α-helix both reached the highest value at 0.125% and 0.25%, respectively. SEM results showed that when adding 0.25% ZBAE, the network structure was more ordered and denser than that of the non-addition group, and the fractal dimension, average diameter and water holes were also perfect. In addition, low addition (<0.25%) of Zanthoxylum bungeanum water extract could improve the sensory quality of surimi gel.
2023, 44(6): 121-127.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080044
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Chestnut is often used in cloudy beverage for its good nutritional value and health care function. Due to abundant starch in chestnut, the chestnut beverage is easy to precipitate or stratify. Therefore, in this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and agar were composited to improve the stability of the chestnut suspension. The determination of particle size, viscosity, rheology and Turbiscan were carried out to evaluate the effect of MCC concentration on the stability of chestnut suspension. The results showed that the chestnut suspension was relatively stable with smaller particle size and higher potential value when MCC concentration was 2.4 g/L and agar concentration was 0.4 g/L, but little change in particle size occurred during thermal acceleration process. When MCC concentration was 2.4 and 2.8 g/L, the chestnut suspension had higher viscosity, and could provide better suspension stability for suspended particles in the system. The rheological result showed that when the concentration of MCC was 2.4 g/L, a relatively stable network structure could be formed in the system, resulting in the stronger damage resistance. The Turbiscan analysis showed that the TSI value of the system was relatively small, leading to stable within a short time when MCC concentration was 2.4 and 2.8 g/L.
2023, 44(6): 128-136.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100265
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The current study aimed to explore the dynamic binding process and molecular mechanism for the non-covalent interaction between sinapic acid (SA) and rice bran glutelin (RBG). Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence quenching, the number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters. Further, the binding process of complex formation and the underlying molecular mechanism were revealed by the combination of homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations. Fluorescence study showed that SA quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of RBG via static mode, indicating the formation of SA-RBG complex. The number of binding site was about 1. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the SA could bind with RBG spontaneously, which was predominately driven by hydrophobic interactions. Molecular docking revealed that there were five potent binding sites on RBG for SA. Further molecular dynamic simulation revealed that SA could not only bind stably at binding site C2 but also exhibited the lowest binding free energy, suggesting that C2 was the most favorable binding cavity among the five predicted binding sites. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulation results including the radius of gyrate, root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation further validated the binding stable between SA and RBG. The decomposition of binding free energy to per amino acid residue combined with binding mode analysis indicated that six key residues (including Ile131, Ile90, Trp149, Gln261, Tyr151 and Tyr102) of RBG and two methoxy groups of SA played critical roles in the binding process between SA an RBG. The above results would provide theoretical basis for the application and development of SA-RBG complex as functional ingredients.
2023, 44(6): 137-145.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050024
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Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is the dominant spoilage bacteria resulting the deterioration of orange juice. To simulate the growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique was used to predict the content of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestri in orange juice. Different spectral pre-processing methods, including autoscale, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV) and detrend, coupled with chemometric regression were used to build the prediction model of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice by NIR spectroscopy. Based on that, the NIR predicted colony data of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris was used to develop the growth model of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice by one-step approach. Results showed that, PLS model established by spectral pretreatment after Autoscale had relatively good prediction effect on the content of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestri in orange juice, with the prediction determination coefficient (Rp2), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative percent deviation (RPD) of 0.733, 0.242 lg CFU/mL and 1.919, respectively. Four different growth simulation models gave satisfactory predictions, with MSE values from 0.0046 to 0.0300 lg CFU/mL, RMSE values from 0.068 to 0.173 lg CFU/mL, AIC values from -66.383 to -53.944, respectively. Correlation analysis was performed between the four developed growth models based on the NIR prediction of colony number and the growth model constructed by plate counting method, and all of their correlation coefficients (r) were higher than 0.900. Particularly, the Huang-full model had the best ability to describe the growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice and showed the best fitting results. Besides, the good reliability of all developed models was verified by accuracy factor (${A}_{f}$) and bias factor (${B}_{f}$). Accordingly, this study indicated the potential to use NIR spectroscopy combined with advanced chemometrics to describe the growth prediction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice.
2023, 44(6): 146-154.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050136
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To explore antioxidant properties and influence on gut microbes of capsaicin and capsicum aqueous extracts, the main nutrients of capsicum aqueous extracts were determined, then taking standard of capsaicin as positive control, the antioxidant properties of capsaicin and capsicum aqueous extracts were determined. Using healthy college students' faeces as bacteria source, using 24 h anaerobic fermentation in vitro model to explore their effects on gut microbes. The results showed that the scavenging rates of DPPH free radical, superoxide anion free radical and hydroxyl free radical were 75.25%, 12.87% and 19.45%, respectively, in the range of slight spicy (0.028 g/L) to super spicy (0.112 g/L), they were lower than those of standard capsaicin. In the range of extra-spicy (0.0924~0.2918 g/L), capsaicin and capsicum aqueous extracts could increase the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the culture system. At six hours of fermentation, capsaicin and capsicum aqueous extracts had inhibitory effects on the growth of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterobacter and the total anaerobes, but had no obvious inhibitory effects on Bacteroidetes. The capsaicin and capsicum aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of Enterobacter and promoted the growth of other bacteria at 12 h. When cultured for 24 h, they inhibited the growth of total anaerobe, clostridium and Enterobacter, and promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroidetes. The index PI value of prebiotics were the biggest 0.11 and 0.04 at 24 h, respectively. The B/E values were the biggest 1.60 and 1.61 at 12 h, respectively. This study would provide some data support for the research on nutrition value and health care function of pepper.
2023, 44(6): 155-161.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050186
Abstract(32) HTML(21) PDF(1)
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To better understand the metabolism in industrial lactic acid fermentation by Bacillus coagulans, the lactic acid fermentation characteristics with mixed carbon sources were studied under varied aeration, pH, and neutralizer conditions in laboratory-scale bioreactor, and the effects of metal ions and osmotic pressure on the autolysis of B. coagulans under starvation were conducted. The results showed that the lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans using glucose+trehalose as the mixed carbon source showed a significant carbon catabolite repression (CCR), and the fermentation process could be divided into glucose consumption phase (phase I), organic acids consumption phase (phase II) and trehalose consumption phase (phase III). Differents fermentation conditions had less of an impact on cell growth and lactic acid production at phase I, but had a considerable impact on phase III. In the phase III, the highest trehalose consumption rate and lactic acid productivity appeared at 7.2 L/h (0.03 vvm) ventilation. The rates of sugar consumption and lactic acid production were higher at pH6.5 than that at pH6.0, while nearly no trehalose consumption and lactic acid production were observed at pH5.5. Compared with NaOH, when Ca(OH)2 was used as a neutralizer at pH6.5, the trehalose utilization rate and lactic acid production rate were enhanced by 21.0% and 28.3%, respectively. It was found that Ca2+ and Mg2+ alleviated autolysis, while Na+ had some benefits in maintaining the activity of cells. The results of this paper would lay the foundation for studying the mechanism of metabolic shift during lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans in mixed carbon sources.
2023, 44(6): 162-172.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050334
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Objective: Explore and establish the best process of Taxilli Herba tea fermented by Aspergillus cristatus, and dig the potential mechanism of Taxilli Herba tea fermented by A. cristatus on the prevention and treatment effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: In order to optimize the process of Taxilli Herba tea fermented by A. cristatus, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied, main chemical components and organoleptic evaluation were taken as evaluation indexes, single factor experiments were taken, and orthogonal experiment was used. Moreover, to dig and evaluate the prevention and treatment effect of NAFLD, the model in Zebrafish larval induced by 0.1% egg yolk powder and 5 mmol·mL−1 thioacetamide was used. Finally, technologies of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and network pharmacology were applied to select key compounds and core targets, and accomplish molecular docking. Results: The optimal fermentation process was as follows: The content of water was 35%, the time of pile-fermentation was 3 h, the concentration of A. cristatus was 1×106 CFU·mL−1, and fermentation time was 7 d. Taxilli Herba tea fermented by A. cristatus showed significant prevention and treatment effects in NAFLD (P<0.05) by lowering the level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. A total of fourteen differential metabolites was obtained by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. The network pharmacology prediction result was reliable in a certain degree, while the key compounds such as echinulin and neoechinulin A showed good docking abilities with targets including NR1H4, LDLR, JUN, EGFR, STAT3 and so on. Conclusion: Taxilli Herba tea fermented by A. cristatus had obvious preventive and therapeutic effect in NAFLD, which could provide a theoretical foundation for further research and product development.
2023, 44(6): 173-182.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050343
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Utilizing a sausage model and principal component analysis (PCA), a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum that significantly improved the flavor substance of sausage was selected. It was added to the sausage, and the pH, Aw, color, peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), and volatile flavor substances of Sichuan sausage production were measured at 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14 d, using the uninoculated group as control. A partial least squares discriminant analysis model (PLS-DA) was applied to evaluate the characteristic flavor substances in sausages with VIP (variable important in projection) > 1 and P < 0.05 as screening conditions. Results showed that, the pH of control and Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented sausages declined and then gradually rose with fermentation time. The Aw reduced dramatically, the POV and TBARS increased significantly, while there was no significant change in color (P>0.05). And the pH, Aw, POV and TBARS values were significantly lower in Lactobacillus plantarum inoculated sausages compared to the control group. In comparison to the control group, the sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum had significantly higher concentrations of alcohols, ketones, and esters, as well as significantly enhanced the concentrations of characteristic flavor substances (isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, phenylethylaldehyde and phenylethanol). In summary, Lactobacillus plantarum M-25 selected by the sausage model was effective in enhancing the quality and flavor characteristics of sausages.
2023, 44(6): 183-192.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070002
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To improve the quality of orah fruit wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia manshurica and Lactobacillus plantarum were used in the single and mixed microbial fermentation of orah fruit wine. The physical and chemical indexes in the fermentation process were detected, and the flavor substances produced in the fermentation process were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the mixed fermentation group of S. cerevisiae, P. manshurica and L. plantarum (Zp group) had the highest sugar utilization rate and the obvious advantage of reducing the organic acids, in which the reducing sugar content was 2.54±0.02 g/L, and the total acid was 5.34±0.28 g/L. Compared with other fermentation groups, Zp group had the strongest antioxidant activity, in which the total phenol content was 279.82±1.36 mg/L, the superoxide anion content was 71.23±0.65 μmol/mL, and the scavenging rate of hydroxyl radical was 70.75%±0.17%. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to determine the organic acids of the fermentation groups. The results showed that lactic acid and acetic acid were the main organic acids produced during the fermentation groups. In particular, the relative content of total organic acids in Zp group was 7.9% lower than that in other fermentation groups, indicating that L. plantarum had good biological deacidification. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the aroma components of the fermentation groups, and a total of 68 volatile components were detected. Compared with the single bacteria fermentation group, the mixed microbial fermentation group of S. cerevisiae and P. manshurica (Sk group) and Zp group increased the types and contents of esters, and higher alcohols, which increased the aroma complexity of orah fruit wine. Through sensory evaluation, the results revealed that Zp group scored the highest in taste, aroma, and color, with a total score of 88.55±1.2. Zp group had moderate sweet and sour, and bright colors, which indicated that mixed microbial fermentation was helpful to improve the taste, enrich the aroma complexity, and enhance the quality of orah fruit wine. In this study, S. cerevisiae, P. manshurica, and L. plantarum were used for the first time to ferment orah fruit wine, which would provide a theoretical basis for quality control and product development of orah fruit wine.
2023, 44(6): 193-200.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070216
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In this study, four strains of lactic acid-producing bacteria were isolated from naturally fermented quinoa sour pulp by using plate separation technology with starch flocculation rate and lactic acid production as indicators. According to the morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical experiments, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain QSL4, QSL8, QSL9 and QSL12 were identified as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcwus durans, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus lactis, respectively. The isolated strains were applied to the extraction of quinoa protein, and its extraction characteristics in quinoa protein were analyzed by single factor experiments. The results showed that the extraction rate of quinoa protein by strain QSL12 was the highest, reaching 60.23% and 62.39% at the inoculum level of 7% and the fermentation temperature was 26 ℃, which were higher than the extraction rate results of 52.13% by alkali dissolution and acid precipitation method. This study would provide a foundation for quinoa protein extraction by acidic steeping liquor (ASL).
2023, 44(6): 201-208.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050308
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An emulsion gel was prepared with Trachinotus ovatus myofibrillar protein as emulsifier and corn oil as oil phase in this study. The structure of Trachinotus ovatus myofibrillar protein was characterized using SDS-PAGE, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microscope. Preparation of Trachinotus ovatus myofibrillar protein emulsion gel was done by screening for the optimal protein concentration (C) and oil ratio (φ). The structure of the emulsion gel was characterized by confocal laser, and the effects of pH and NaCl concentration on the stability of the emulsion gel were explored. The results showed that Trachinotus ovatus myofibrillar protein had typical protein structure with β-sheet as the dominant secondary structure, and the fibrillar structure was formed by the aggregation of elliptical particles. The emulsion gel had the best elastic modulus G' when the protein concentration was 2.5% with an oil ratio of 0.68, and had a small average particle size. Laser confocal examination showed that the emulsion gel had a W/O/W multiple emulsion structure. The emulsion gels were unstable under acidic pH but relatively stable under alkaline conditions. In conclusion, the optimized preparation and characterization golden pomfret myofibrillar protein emulsion gel in this study would provide invaluable technical reference for the commercial development of golden pomfret myofibrillar protein.
2023, 44(6): 209-218.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050332
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Objective: Rice bran esterase was extracted from rice bran using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) as media and the extraction processing of parameters was systematically optimized. The higher purity of rice bran esterase was obtained after purified with DEAE column and its enzyme properties were also investigated. Methods: Ten kinds of NADES including organic acids-based, polyols-based, amine-based and amino acids-based NADES were prepared. The extraction procedures including water bath agitation and ultrasonication were carried out. The effects of single factor such as the solid-to-liquid ratio, water content, extraction temperature and time on enzyme activity was studied. And then response surface methodology was used for optimization of the extraction processing. The crude enzyme solution was purified using DEAE column, as well as its enzyme characteristics were investigated. Results: The rice bran esterase activity of 2.96 U was obtained under the extraction conditions of proline-glycerol (molar ratio 1:2, contained 5% of water), 74.0 ℃, 3 h and a rice bran to NADES ratio of 9:30. The higher purity of rice bran esterase was obtained after purification with DEAE column. The purification efficiency and the recovery of rice bran esterase were 1.74 times, 69.40%, respectively. The molecular weight of rice bran esterase was approximately 35 kDa. The optimal substrate was a p-nitrophenyl acetate, and the optimal temperature and pH were 40.0 ℃, 8.0, respectively. The better stability of rice bran esterase could be maintained under 30.0~40.0 ℃ and pH7.0~9.0, as well as the similar performance in choline chloride-glycerol and proline-glycerol. Conclusion: Natural deep eutectic solvents used as a medium for extraction procedure is a simple and green extraction route, which would provide the understanding of extraction strategies for preparation of function compounds.
2023, 44(6): 219-225.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060017
Abstract(28) HTML(13) PDF(3)
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In this study, the effects of starch emulsion concentration, autoclave time and autoclave temperature on the preparation of glutinous millet resistant starch (GMRS) were systematically investigated by using the yield of GMRS as the detection index. Then, the physicochemical properties and microstructure of glutinous millet starch (GMS) before and after autoclave treatment were further analyzed and compared. The influence of different ratio of GMRS addition on the texture and GI value of biscuits were studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the preparation of GMRS by autoclave method were starch emulsion concentration of 10%, autoclave time of 40 min, and autoclave temperature of 120 ℃. Under these conditions, the yield of GMRS was 30.64%. Further detection indicated that compared with GMS, the light transmittance, solubility and swelling power of GMRS were decreased significantly. Unlike GMS, which had small particle size and relatively smooth surface, the morphology of GMRS prepared by autoclave method was flaky and rough surface with pore like depression. The data of the further experiments, in which GMRS was used to replace part of the flour to make biscuits, showed that with the increasing of the amount of GMRS, the shear force of biscuits increased, and the GI value decreased significantly, the biscuits could be transformed from high GI value food to medium GI value food, meeting the needs of consumers for low GI value food.
2023, 44(6): 226-234.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060148
Abstract(37) HTML(10) PDF(9)
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To optimize the process of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction of total flavonoids from the roots of Houttuynia cordata, the appropriate liquid to material ratio, particle size, ethanol concentration, enzymatic digestion time, and enzyme addition was screened out by single-factor experiments, and the optimal conditions for the extraction of the flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata were optimized by Box-Behnken response surface. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of flavonoids was investigated. The results showed that the optimum extraction process was liquid to material ratio of 28:1 mL/g, particle size of <250 μm, ethanol concentration of 54%, and enzymatic digestion time of 22 min. The extraction amount of flavonoids was 22.197 mg/g under the optimized conditions, and the purity reached 26.63% by concentration under reduced pressure. The obtained flavonoids showed good scavenging ability for DPPH·, ·OH, and ABTS+· with EC50 values of 0.097, 2.250, and 0.384 mg/mL, respectively. The results of the study would provide a theoretical basis for the extraction of total flavonoids from the roots of Houttuynia cordata and a reference for further realization of the utilization of Houttuynia cordata.
2023, 44(6): 235-243.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060210
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Objective: In this research, to study the best technology of fermented wine with fresh Lycopus lucidus as raw material. Methods: According to the results of single factor test, Box-Behnken response surface was used to optimize the technological conditions of L. lucidus fermented wine, and the effects of fermentation temperature, yeast inoculation amount and initial sugar content on fermented wine were investigated with alcohol content and sensory score as response values. Meanwhile, the phenolic acids in L. lucidus fermented wine were analyzed by UPLC. Results: In this study, the optimum technological conditions of L. lucidus fermentation wine were found to be yeast inoculation of 5.1%, initial sugar content of 22.8%, fermentation temperature of 26 ℃ and fermentation time of 9 days. The alcohol content of the fermented wine reached 11.23%vol, the sensory score was 85.50, and the contents of polysaccharide, total phenol, total acid and total flavone were 6.54 g/L, 384.31 mg/L, 20.67 g/L and 204.59 mg/L. The scavenging rates of ABTS+, DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals of L. lucidus fermented wine were 90.53%, 81.51% and 55.86%, indicating that it had certain antioxidant activity. L. lucidus fermented wine contains five phenolic acids including gallic acid, tanshinsu, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid, of which gallic acid content was the highest (11.20 mg/L). Conclusion: The optimized technology of L. lucidus fermented wine was orange, clear and transparent, and the wine was mellow and full. It not only had a unique flavor of L. lucidus fermented wine, but also retained the active components such as polyphenols.
2023, 44(6): 244-252.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060217
Abstract(33) HTML(15) PDF(4)
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In this study, a stable curcumin nanoemulsion delivery system was constructed using selectively hydrolyzed soy protein as the emulsifier to enhance the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. The effect of homogenization pressure on nanoemulsions was investigated, and the particle size, zeta-potential, turbidity, microstructure, and the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion properties of nanoemulsions were determined. The solubility of curcumin was significantly (P<0.05) dependent on the type of oil, the solubility in four oil was medium chain triglycerides (MCT) > canola oil > corn oil > olive oil > soybean oil. The emulsions prepared under 50 MPa showed the smallest mean particle size (265.00±4.14 nm), larger zeta-potential (-30.77±0.71 mV), and the lowest turbidity. The curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions prepared with rapeseed oil and MCT could resist pepsin digestion and maintain a certain interfacial tension in the stomach to keep the emulsion in its original form, while being digested in the small intestine with a 60% release rate of free fatty acids. The bioavailability and retention of curcumin decreased significantly with the increasing in the ratio of canola oil to MCT. Among them, the emulsions formed with rapeseed oil:MCT=3:7 oil phase possessed almost the same bioavailability and retention of curcumin as those with pure MCT oil phase, close to 70%. The study would provide guide for the design of delivery systems to encapsulate and release high lipophilic functional components.
2023, 44(6): 253-260.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070009
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This study aimed to optimize the process parameters and hot-air drying characteristics of the cowpea under different drying conditions. Cowpea was tested under different conditions of hot air temperature, hot air velocity and number of layers of spreading material, and the best kinetic model was obtained by mathematical modeling of the test data using a conventional mathematical model. Response surface tests were conducted based on single-factor tests, and the cowpea rehydration ratio, color difference value and unit energy consumption were used as evaluation indexes, and the entropy weight method was used to determine the weights for comprehensive optimization of process parameters. The results showed that the hot air temperature and the number of layers of material spread had a greater effect on the hot air drying rate and total drying time of cowpea, while the hot air velocity had a smaller effect on the drying rate and total drying time. The Avhad and Marchetti model was the optimal prediction model, which could more accurately predict the changes of moisture content during the hot air drying of cowpea. The optimal process parameters for cowpea based on entropy weighting method were: hot air temperature 51 °C, hot air wind speed 1.2 m/s, and number of layers of 3 layers of spreading material, and the energy consumption per unit for the validation test under this process condition was 34.52 kJ/kg, the color difference value was 23.87, and the rehydration ratio was 1.49. This study could provide reliable theoretical data for improving the quality of cowpea drying and the design of drying equipment.
2023, 44(6): 261-266.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070012
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In order to fully exploit the utilization value of Chinese yam peel, the optimal extraction conditions of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from Chinese yam peel residue were investigated by orthogonal experiment. The extracts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And the physical and chemical properties of its swelling capacity (SC), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) were determined. The results showed that the optimal extraction process was 90 min, NaOH concentration was 12 g/L, liquid-solid ratio was 40:1(mL:g), and extraction temperature was 80 ℃. Under the optimal process, the SDF yield of yam peel residue was 11.52%±0.23%. SDF of yam peel residue belongs to cellulose type I, and its infrared absorption peak showed typical polysaccharide absorption peak. SEM results showed that the SDF of yam peel residue was a loose structure formed by many fine particles. Compared with SDF of yam peel, SDF of yam peel residue had better expansion rate, water holding capacity and oil holding capacity (7.63±0.32 mL/g, 9.81±0.21 g/g, 4.45±0.24 g/g, respectively). In conclusion, SDF of Chinese yam peel residue had good physical and chemical properties, which made it potential value as an effective ingredient in functional food.
2023, 44(6): 267-274.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070032
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The process condition of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) seed oil by microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic method was studied, and the quality of the product was analyzed. According to extraction rate, the optimum conditions of blackcurrant seed oil by microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic method were explored by single-factor tests and response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: Ultrasonic power 300 W, ultrasonic temperature 50 ℃, ultrasonic time 25 min, composite enzyme dosage 2% (protease:compound cellulase:pectinase=2:2:1), hydrolysis initial pH6.5, hydrolysis temperature 55 ℃, liquid-solid ratio 5:1 (g/g), hydrolysis time 3 h. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of blackcurrant seed oil was 78.34%. The quality of blackcurrant seed oil were analyzed by physicochemical indexes. The results showed that the sensory index, peroxide value and acid value of blackcurrant seed oil reached the national sanitary standard of edible vegetable oil. Blackcurrant seed oil was a kind of functional vegetable oil with high nutritional value, which contained unsaturated fatty acids (poly unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 67.92%). The contents of polyphenols, α-tocopherols, γ-tocopherols reached 300.49, 19.55 and 41.67 mg/kg. This study would provide a theoretical reference for the industrial production of blackcurrant seed oil.
2023, 44(6): 275-282.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070041
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Natto is rich in nutrients and has many beneficial effects on the human body, but it has a harsh ammonia taste that makes it difficult to be accepted by people. This study investigated the effects of soaking time, inoculum amount, fermentation time and fermentation temperature on high-protein natto using high-protein soybeans as raw material, and determined the best preparation process for high-protein natto, and then added super sweet corn to improve the flavour and acceptability of natto. The results showed that natto drawing effect was the best under the condition of 10 g of high-protein soybean, soaking time of 20 h, sterilization amount of 8%, fermentation time of 26 h, fermentation temperature of 36 ℃, the pungent odor was reduced, and the sensory score was up to 97.85 points, on the basis of this process, under the condition of a composite ratio of 8:2 of high-protein soybean and super sweet corn, the nattokinase enzyme activity of natto reached 1134.76 U/g, and the volatile salt-based nitrogen content was 32.87 mg/g. At the same time, the electronic nose and electronic tongue test could clearly distinguish natto with different raw material proportions, and natto had the best flavor and the best sensory quality.
2023, 44(6): 283-291.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020230
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2023, 44(6): 292-299.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050152
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Objective: To establish a method for the determination of shrimp allergens in meat products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Methods: Meat products (cooked ham, sausages and meatballs) with complex matrix components were selected as the detection target. The samples were extracted by ultrasonic in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30 min, and acetonitrile was added to remove fat after centrifugation (10000 r/min, 15 ℃, 10 min). Finally, trypsin (1 mg/mL, 10 μL) was added to the sample diluents which had been mixed with internal peptide (2.5 μmol/L, 40 μL), and the enzymolysis process lasted 16 h at 37 ℃ before UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The samples were separated on a T3 column, and eluted by gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile. The data was collected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode, and quantified by internal standard method. Results: The method was used to determine the content of shrimp allergen in meat products, and the quantitative peptide had a good linear relationship with the determination coefficients 1.0000 in the range of 0.001~2.0 μmol/L. The limits of detection was 0.67 mg/kg, and the limits of quantification was 2.00 mg/kg. The recovery was 83.2%~104.5% and the precision was 2.63%~7.92% at three spiked levels. Conclusion: The method has the advantages of strong specificity, high sensitivity and good recovery. It was suitable for the screening and quantification of shrimp allergens in meat products.
2023, 44(6): 300-308.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050323
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Objective: In this study, a colloidal gold immunochromatographic four lines card for the simultaneous determination of chlorpyrifos, fipronil, carbofuran and carbendazim in fruits and vegetables was prepared. Methods: The four lines card was prepared by using nitrocellulose membrane as carrier, pesticide competitive antigen as coating antigen and colloidal gold as labeling material. The parameter conditions, including concentrations of antibody for labeling, concentration of the coating antigen, sample extractant and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal condition, the sensitivity, specificity and stability, as well as the accuracy of the four lines card were evaluated. Results: In the optimized of four lines card preparation process parameters, the concentration of colloidal gold labeled antibody of chlorpyrifos, fipronil, carbofuran and carbendazim were 3.2, 2.4, 3.2 and 3.2 µg/mL, and the concentration of antigen coating of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.65, 0.80, 0.65 and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The limit of detection of chlorpyrifos was 0.1 mg/kg, fipronil was 0.02 mg/kg, carbofuran was 0.02 mg/kg, and carbendazim was 0.05 mg/kg. Except that the cross-reaction rates of carbofuran with carbosulfan was 20%, the cross-reaction rates of chlorpyrifos, fipronil and carbendazim with six structural analogues were less than 5%. It could be stored at room temperature for at least 12 months. Furthermore, 60 samples were analyzed and the detection results were consistent with those obtained in reference method. Conclusion: The four lines card prepared in this study was simple, accurate, fast and stable, which was suitable for the rapid screening and detection of chlorpyrifos, fipronil, carbofuran and carbendazim residues in fruits and vegetables.
2023, 44(6): 309-316.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050324
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Objective: The scarfskin and scarcocarp of 16 batches of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle were collected as the research objects to find out the differences between scarfskin and scarcocarp. Methods: The fingerprints of scarfskin and scarcocarp of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle were established by HPLC, and the content of multicomponents was determined respectively. Result: Eight common peaks were picked up in scarcocarp, 18 in scarfskin, and six constituents were identified as scopoletin, scoparone, hesperidin, diosimin, 5,7-dimethoxy coumarin and bergapten. The similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine was employed for similarity analysis. The scarfskin and scarcocarp of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle in Leshan City had good similarity with their respective reference fingerprints, both greater than 0.90. The similarity between the scarfskin and scarcocarp of the same batch of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle was very low, only 0.10 to 0.35. On this basis, the contents of six identified components were determined. In the scarfskin of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle six components were detected, and the contents of 5,7-dimethoxy coumarin and diosimin were higher. But the contents of hesperidin and diosimin in the scarcocarp were higher, and the other four components were not detected. Conclusion: Through HPLC fingerprint and quantitative analysis of multiple components, it was found that there were significant differences in composition and content between scarfskin and scarcocarp. With these characteristics, the scarfskin and scarcocarp of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle could be used in different fields to maximize the use of resources. At the same time, the established method could be used for quality control of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle, and would provide technical support for rational and efficient development and utilization of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle resources.
2023, 44(6): 317-324.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060033
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The development and application of blockchain technology can solve the problem of inconsistent quality levels in the physical delivery of current wheat futures transactions. This study takes wheat futures as the research object, and builds a wheat futures trading platform based on blockchain technology by analyzing the quality problems of wheat futures trading and the applicability of blockchain technology. Then, the conceptual model and quality control scheme of wheat futures trading quality evaluation process based on blockchain are proposed from the three stages of data acquisition, physical delivery and quality feedback. Thus, the quality evaluation system of wheat futures based on blockchain is constructed to provide reference for ensuring the quality of wheat futures trading and promoting the healthy development of wheat futures trading market.
2023, 44(6): 325-334.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060146
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In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and electronic nose technology were used to analyze the volatile components of the fruit from nine pomegranate (Punica granatum) cultivars grown in southern Xinjiang. The conditions for solid-phase microextraction were optimized. The optimal conditions for headspace solid-phase microextraction were as follows: salt concentration 0.3 g/mL, extraction time 45 min, and extraction temperature 45 °C. The electronic nose detected differences in the volatile components of the fruit among the pomegranate cultivars. A total of 73 compounds were detected from the nine pomegranate fruit samples by HS-SPME-GC-MS, comprising 23 terpenes, 16 alcohols, 3 esters, 15 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 8 acids, and 3 others. Thus, six types of volatile components were distinguished, with a relative content of 63.11%~92.32%, which comprised the main constituents of the volatile components of Xinjiang pomegranate fruit. In each of the nine cultivars, 2, 6, 0, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, and 3 unique volatile components were detected, hence each cultivar had a unique complement of fruit volatiles. The results could provide a reference for fruit quality evaluation and utilization of pomegranate cultivars in Xinjiang.
2023, 44(6): 335-344.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060151
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2023, 44(6): 345-350.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060168
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The work aimed to improve the prediction efficiency in rapid determination of the firmness of kiwifruit. A Vis/NIR (390~1030 nm) hyperspectral imaging system was applied to obtain the images of Guichang kiwifruit, and the reflective spectrum in the regions of interest on each sample was acquired. Noise from original reflective spectrum was reduced by the standard normal variation method. The competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and the successive projection algorithm were applied to select feature variables. Finally an error back propagation neural network and a multi linear regression (MLR) model were constructed to predict the firmness of kiwifruit. A total of 35 feature variables were selected by CARS from 256 variables. The working efficiency of the final prediction model was improved by 11-fold, with the runtime dropped from 5.84 s to 0.54 s. Overall, the CARS-MLR model showed a relatively good detection capability (rc=0.95, rp=0.92, RMSEC=1.65 kg/cm2, RMSEP=1.99 kg/cm2, RPD above 2). This study demonstrated the application potential of the nondestructive hyperspectral imaging technology for fast determination of the firmness of kiwifruit.
2023, 44(6): 351-360.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050020
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To investigate the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the quality of yak meat, yak meat was processed under pressure at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 480 seconds, respectively, and the sensory, pH, microorganism, color, protein, and lipid oxidation of yak meat stored at 4 °C for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days was determined. The results showed that HPP significantly lowered the total number of colonies and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) during storage (P<0.05), and extended the shelf life of yak meat. Yak meat was well preserved for 4~8 days from sensory perception. The L* and b* values of yak meat with HPP increased significantly (P<0.05). The a* value increased significantly at 400 MPa (P<0.05) and remained at the highest level throughout storage, and the contents of various myoglobin (Mb) in the 400 MPa group also demonstrated excellent meat color stability. Whereas the a* values decreased significantly under other pressure conditions (P<0.05). The carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity of yak meat myofibrillar protein (MP) were increased, while sulfhydryl content were decreased, and TBARS of yak meat were elevated. According to Pearson correlation analysis, pressure, protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and microbes were all associated with changes in yak meat quality under HHP (P<0.05). In conclusion, although HPP accelerated the oxidation of protein and lipids, the use of appropriate pressure was conducive to maintaining the meat color stability and sensory quality of yak meat, providing a reference for the application of yak meat with HPP.
2023, 44(6): 361-365.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060175
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In order to delay the browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut eggplant during storage, the optimal concentrations of furfuryl thioacetate (FT) on overall sensory quality, browning degree, the activities of enzymes related to browning, contents of total phenol and quinone, and total antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut eggplant during storage at 4 ℃ were investigated. The results showed that 0.64 mmol/L FT treatment significantly inhibited the browning, maintained its overall sensory quality, and prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut eggplant during storage at 4 ℃ up to day 5. Further studies indicated that 0.64 mmol/L FT treatment suppressed the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), increased phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and DPPH free radical scavenging rate compared with control. In addition, 0.64 mmol/L FT treatment also decreased the contents of total phenol and quinone. Therefore, FT, as a novel anti-browning inhibitor, can delay the browning of fresh-cut eggplant and prolong its shelf life.
2023, 44(6): 366-375.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050301
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Objective: To study the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) on myocardial tissue of exercise-induced fatigue mice. Method: GLP was extracted by boiling water. The exhaustive swimming model and incremental load swimming fatigue model of mice were established respectively. The exhaustive swimming time, anti-fatigue and antioxidant related indexes of mice were measured. Moreover, Western blot was used to analyze the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-Associated X (Bax) and Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (Cleaved Caspase-3). Results: Compared with blank control group (Con-A1), swimming time of GLP group increased significantly (P<0.01), and swimming time increased with increase of GLP dose. Compared with blank control group (Con-A2), the liver glycogen of GLP low (GLP-L2), medium (GLP-M2) and high (GLP-H2) dose groups increased by 33.55%, 50.73% and 66.16% respectively (P<0.01), muscle glycogen increased by 64.18%, 106.80% and 117.21% respectively (P<0.01), meanwhile the levels of blood lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen decreased by 32.21%, 42.09%, 42.45% and 18.40%, 34.18%, 34.53% respectively. Compared with model group (M-Con3), MDA content in GLP-L3, GLP-M3 and GLP-H3 groups was significantly decreased (P<0.05), while SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were significantly increased (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that anti-fatigue indexes of mice had a high correlation with antioxidant enzyme activity indexes. In addition, compared with M-Con3, protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and Bcl-2 in GLP-L3, GLP-M3, and GLP-H3 groups were significantly increased (P<0.01), while protein expression levels of Bax and Cleaved caspase-3 were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion: GLP had significant anti-exercise fatigue effect, and its protective effect on the myocardial tissue of mice might be related to improving the antioxidant capacity of myocardial cells, activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and inhibiting the apoptosis of myocardial cells.
2023, 44(6): 376-383.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060164
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Objective: This study was designed to explore the effect of camel milk on glucose and lipid metabolism metabolism in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high fat, high sugar and high cholesterol diet. Methods: 50 C57BL6/J male mice were randomly divided into control group (NC), model group (Mod), control camel milk group (NCM, 3g·kg−1 bw), camel milk group (CaM, 3 g·kg−1 bw) and silymarin group (PC, 200 mg·kg−1 bw). The model of nonalcoholic fatty liver was established for 12 weeks. The mice in the camel milk group and the silymarin group were gavaged with the corresponding doses of camel milk and silymarin at a fixed time every day, respectively. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum biochemical, insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity, oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were measured to investigate the effect of camel milk on glucolipid metabolism in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high fat, high sugar, and high cholesterol diet. Results: Camel milk significantly inhibited the increase of body weight and blood sugar of NAFLD mice and notably reduced the levels of total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), leptin (LEP) and insulin (INS) (P<0.05). While the adiponectin (ADPN) levels in mice serum was increased (P<0.05). In the camel milk group, the glucose tolerance were significantly increased, insulin resistance was reduced, and insulin sensitivity was significantly improved (P<0.05), indicating glucose and lipid metabolism was enhanced. Conclusion: Camel milk had a modulatory role in glucose and lipid metabolism in NAFLD mice induced by high-fat, high-sugar and high-cholesterol diet, which would increase the glucose and lipid metabolism by alleviating insulin resistance and promoting serum lipid transport.
2023, 44(6): 384-395.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070138
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Objective: To screen novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides from camel milk lactoferrin (LF) combined with bioinformatics. Network pharmacology was used to explore the potential mechanism of action of screened peptides on diabetes. Methods: Multiple peptides were generated by simulated enzymatic cleavage of lactoferrin using the BIOPEP website. Screening target peptides by combining peptide databases and molecular docking. Four of them were selected for solid-phase synthesis to verify their DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the interaction between the peptide and DPP-IV molecules, and the Lineweaver-Burk method was used to analyze the inhibition mode of the peptide. Then, GPQY with stronger inhibition was selected for network pharmacological analysis to predict its potential mechanism of action on diabetes. Furthermore, the active targets of GPQY and diabetes were mined from the Swiss Target Prediction and Gene Cards databases, and the String database was used to obtain protein-protein interaction relationships. The PPI networks were built by Cytoscape 3.9.0 software, and the DAVID database was exploited for enrichment analysis of GO and KEGG signaling pathways for key targets. Results: Two DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were obtained with semi-inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 348.27±16.11 and 1024.89±19.67 μmol/L. Inhibition pattern analysis indicated competitive inhibition of GPQY and mixed-type inhibition of EACAF. Molecular docking results revealed two peptides bound to the active pocket of DPP-IV through hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic interactions. From the PPI network analysis, GPQY had 25 core-acting targets, including STAT3, MMP9, SRC, and MAPK1. The enrichment results were based on KEGG pathways, which showed that GPQY was involved in the IL-17 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, renin-angiotensin system, apoptosis, etc. Conclusion: Camel milk lactoferrin is a good source of DPP-IV inhibitor peptide. GPQY could prevent diabetes and its complications through multiple targets and pathways involved in the inflammatory response and cell proliferation and differentiation.
2023, 44(6): 396-404.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070296
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Objective: The present study was to explore the protective effects of the anthocyanidin extract of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HRAE) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced by oxidative damage in H1299 cells and its mechanism. Methods: The H2O2-induced oxidative damage in H1299 cells was established. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability of HRAE. Then the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by fluorescence probe DCFH-DA. The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined respectively by kit. Also the expression of proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), Kelch-like epichlorohydrin-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were tested. At last, the research collaboratory for structural bioinformatics (RCSB) protein data bank and AutoDock software were used to verify the molecular docking between epicatechin and Nrf2, the key target protein of oxidative stress. Results: MTT assay showed that HRAE had no effect on cell viability in the range of 0~800µg/mL (P>0.05). Compared with model group, MDA level was decreased, while SOD, CAT and GSH-Px protein expression levels increased significantly in drug administration group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). HRAE significantly reduced the ROS levels in oxidative injured cells (P<0.05). Western Blot showed that HRAE significantly activated the protein levels of HO-1, KEAP and Nrf2 (P<0.05). Molecular docking results showed that epicatechin and catechin had good free binding activity with Nrf2 protein. Conclusion: HRAE could reduce the oxidative damage of H1299 cells induced by H2O2 in a concentration dependent manner, and its mechanism may be related to promoting the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
2023, 44(6): 405-414.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030372
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As one of the important food crops in China, soybean has a high nutritional value. Gelation is of great interest as an important functional property of soybean isolate proteins. Soy protein is mostly used as an encapsulation carrier for a variety of complexes such as water molecules, sugars, lipids and unstable small molecule active substances in products, but the natural gel products of soy protein have problems such as loose structure and low yield, which greatly limits the application and development of its gel products. In this paper, the mechanism of gel formation from soy protein isolates is analyzed, and the intrinsic influencing factors such as soy protein conformation and composition, polysaccharide and lipid interactions and ionic strength, as well as the influence of external factors such as physical, chemical and biological factors on gel formation are discussed in depth and systematically analysed, with a view to providing a theoretical basis for the processing and utilization of soy protein gel products in the future.
2023, 44(6): 415-423.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040145
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New paper-based microfluidic technology has been widely used in many fields due to their advantages such as easy preparation, low cost, and non-toxic environmental protection, compared with the shortcomings of other food analysis and detection techniques such as complex production method and high cost of preparation. The outline of new paper-based microfluidic technology is briefly summarized and the probes including organic molecules, nanomaterials and polymers their structural activity with regard to sensing performances along with their limit of detection are also discussed. This review is expected to assist readers for better understanding of the sensing mechanisms of various chemo and bio-probes utilized in µPADs, as well as promote their advancement in the field. The detection mechanism and its advantages in the whole detection system at the same time to get the ideal experimental results of new paper-based microfluidic technology in the food analysis of pesticide residues, pathogenic bacteria, additives, heavy metals and other substances are mainly introduced. This study would provide the theoretical basis and references for fast detection field. The future challenges and application prospects of this technology are prospected.
2023, 44(6): 424-431.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050002
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Ficus carica is a kind of edible medicinal fruit, which is accepted by mostly customer because its sweet and sour taste and soft fleshy. Ficus carica is rich in nutritional components such as sugar, amino acids and polyphenols, which has high nutritional values. Ficus carica has significant physiological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, and lowering blood lipid, which makes it high-quality resource for functional foods. In this paper, the nutritional compositions and biological activities such as antioxidant, lowering blood lipid, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbico of Ficus carica are reviewed, and the future research directions are prospected. This paper provides theoretical basis for further development and industrialization of Ficus carica functional food.
2023, 44(6): 432-440.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050012
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There has been a controversy as to whether exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid can enter brain regions. The concept of "microbe-gut-brain axis" suggestes that exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid is able to enter the body through oral administration. The γ-aminobutyric acid is subsequently involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal microenvironment, which benefits the central system and provides treatment for neurological diseases. Currently, the γ-aminobutyric acid prepared by microbial method can be used as a new food raw material in certain foods and functional foods rich in γ-aminobutyric acid has been gradually developed. Literature confirms that the intake of a certain amount of γ-aminobutyric could affect nervous system function including improvement of sleep quality, depression-like behavior, behavior and cognitive disorders. This paper is to provide reference for the application of γ-aminobutyric acid in medicine and functional food with the focus on GABA preparation, the relationship between γ-aminobutyric acid and intestinal flora, the effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid on nervous system through intestinal flora and its preparation methods.
2023, 44(6): 441-447.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050116
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Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a kind of excellent food additive and also be used for the modification of biological macromolecules. Starch is an important natural macromolecule that provides energy for the human body, while it has regenerate easily, weak shear resistance, heat instability and other defects. Physical method has the characteristics of convenience, environmental protection and low cost, and is commonly used to modify starch properties in food industry. Herein, this paper introduces the research progress of starch modification by KGM, and summarizes the beneficial improvements of rheological properties, regeneration properties and digestive properties of starch modification by KGM. In addition, the application of KGM in functional foods, such as active substance delivery, diet food, and disease-prevention food are also systematically reviewed. This work would provide a scientific basis for starch modification by KGM and a new strategy for the development of functional foods.
2023, 44(6): 448-458.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050185
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Fluoroquinolones and amphenicols are widely used as broad-spectrum and high-efficiency antibiotics in livestock and poultry production, but excessive drug residues frequently occur. Liquid chromatographic and liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry are the primary methods to detect the fluoroquinolones and amphenicols. According to the current domestic standard, these two veterinary drug residues can only be detected in milk simultaneously, and there are few reports in other matrices. Therefore, it is urgent to establish and optimize the simultaneous detection methods of fluoroquinolones and amphenicols in different matrices. This paper summarizes four standard pretreatment techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, QuEChERS method and accelerated solvent extraction, and discusses the application of hotspot nanomaterial adsorbent in detail. From the perspective of chromatography and chromatography mass spectrometry, the effects of different matrix conditions, instrument conditions and liquid phase conditions on the performance parameters of the method are summarized and discussed to provide a reference for the detection and supervision of veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods.
2023, 44(6): 459-467.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050326
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Abstract:
As a clean and renewable carbon resource, cellulose is an alternative for non-renewable resources such as oil and can convert into high value adding molecule platform chemicals. This paper briefly overviews the structure of cellulose and points out the critical steps of cellulose hydrolysis and efficient conversion, and reviewes the process conditions and catalytic mechanism comprehensively for the conversion of cellulose into glucose, sorbitol and ethylene glycol (such as catalyst types, reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.). The research direction of catalysts in each process is prospected, which would be the reference for the catalytic conversion of cellulose into small molecule platform compounds in future.
2023, 44(6): 468-476.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050329
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Abstract:
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly derived from fish oil and algae oil, is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-3 family. Algal oil, compared with fish oil, is preferred for its higher purity of DHA and also safety. Therefore, algal oil is widely used in food and health care products. It interacts and synergies with the ingredients in food. This article reviews the physiological functions of DHA algal oil, including promoting brain and eye nerve development, enhancing immunity, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer effects. Besides, the article also summarizes the application of DHA algal oil in milk, yoghurt and milk powder, and explores the effects and mechanism of its interaction with food ingredients, like probiotics, prebiotics, phosphatidylserine and lecithin. This would provide a theoretical basis for wider and deeper use of DHA algal oil in food and health products industry.
2023, 44(6): 477-484.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050351
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Abstract:
With the rising nutritional requirements of food and the advancement of technology in the food industry, protein modification has become one of the food industry's top concerns. Glycosylation products are safer than other chemical modifications ones and have a significant deal of potential to enhance food's sensory qualities. This article summarizes the progression of casein glycosylation interactions, including covalently bonded and non-covalently linked reactions, and analyses the effect of glycosylation on the functional properties of casein. Glycosylation is a promising and socially significant protein modification strategy that can improve the functional qualities of casein in a number of ways, potentially helping the dairy processing industry and even food innovation research.
2023, 44(6): 485-493.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050359
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Abstract:
Pea is an important source of high-quality plant protein in human diet, and its protein components are hypoallergenic. Many scholars have conducted studies on the function of pea protein, while there is still a lack of systematic reports on the effects of modifications methods on the structure and properties of pea protein. In order to expand the application of pea protein in the food industry, the effects of physical modification, chemical modification, enzymatic modification and multiple modification on the structural and functional properties are reported in this study, as well as introduce the encapsulation of pea protein in active ingredients, emulsions, substitution of other proteins and optimization of food. Moreover, the prospect of application of pea protein in food industry is prospected.
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