即食小龙虾的微波杀菌工艺研究及品质评价

潘志海 郭长凯 栾东磊

潘志海,郭长凯,栾东磊. 即食小龙虾的微波杀菌工艺研究及品质评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(21):222−231. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030374
引用本文: 潘志海,郭长凯,栾东磊. 即食小龙虾的微波杀菌工艺研究及品质评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(21):222−231. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030374
PAN Zhihai, GUO Changkai, LUAN Donglei. Study on Microwave Sterilization Process and Quality Evaluation of Instant Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(21): 222−231. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030374
Citation: PAN Zhihai, GUO Changkai, LUAN Donglei. Study on Microwave Sterilization Process and Quality Evaluation of Instant Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(21): 222−231. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030374

即食小龙虾的微波杀菌工艺研究及品质评价

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030374
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划“蓝色粮仓科技创新”专项,“水产品智能化加工装备与关键技术研发”项目,“杀菌品质保障技术与智能控制装备研发”课题(2019YFD0901804);上海市自然科学基金(20ZR1423800)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    潘志海(1994−),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品加工新技术,E-mail:m180310738@st.shou.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    栾东磊(1984−),男,博士,副教授,研究方向:食品加工新技术,E-mail:dlluan@shou.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS254.4

Study on Microwave Sterilization Process and Quality Evaluation of Instant Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)

  • 摘要: 为了开发高品质即食小龙虾产品的产业化加工方法,本文以896 MHz单模式工业微波杀菌系统为平台,研发了即食小龙虾的微波杀菌工艺。通过计算蒸煮值、持水性、质构分析、色泽分析、感官评定和电子舌滋味轮廓分析,研究微波加工对小龙虾品质的影响。结果表明,符合商业无菌要求的最低热处理程度为F0=2 min,对应的微波杀菌工艺为:系统压力0.2 MPa,微波功率6.5 kW,微波处理时间190 s,保温温度(120±1)℃,保温时间180 s,经处理后的即食小龙虾常温下货架期在6个月以上。较传统杀菌,总处理时间、冷点蒸煮值、表面蒸煮值分别减少了66.55%、34.40%、57.75%,持水性和质构特性显著优于传统杀菌组(P<0.05),不同杀菌处理组的脱壳完整率无显著性差异(P>0.05)。微波杀菌组虾肉色泽偏黄,而传统杀菌处理虾肉白度更高。在贮藏期内,微波杀菌组的滋味轮廓未发生明显变化,感官评分高于传统杀菌组。综上,微波杀菌技术可以用于常温即食小龙虾的生产加工中。
  • 图  1  单模式工业微波杀菌系统

    Figure  1.  Single mode industrial microwave sterilization system

    注:①样品载入区Carry in;②微波加热腔Microwave heating;③保温区Holding;④冷却区Cooling。

    图  2  不同杀菌方式的时间温度曲线

    Figure  2.  Time-temperature profiles of different sterilization processes

    图  3  即食小龙虾的挥发性盐基氮随贮藏时间的变化(20±5)℃

    Figure  3.  TVB-N in instant crayfish during storage(20±5)℃

    图  4  不同杀菌方式对质构的影响

    Figure  4.  The effect of different sterilization processes on texture

    图  5  小龙虾的感官评分

    Figure  5.  Sensory evaluation of crayfish

    图  6  小龙虾的感官评定总分

    Figure  6.  Total sensory score of crayfish

    图  7  小龙虾的滋味轮廓

    Figure  7.  The flavor profile of crayfish

    表  1  感官评分标准

    Table  1.   Standard of sensory evaluation

    指标评分(分)形态气味滋味口感
    3虾仁完整,容易剥离香味浓郁滋味鲜美肉质紧密,弹性良好,耐咀嚼
    2虾仁基本完整香味较淡滋味较好肉质松软,弹性一般,容易咀嚼
    1无法剥出完整虾仁没有香味滋味寡淡肉质软烂,弹性较差,不耐咀嚼
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  感官评分标准

    Table  2.   Standard of sensory evaluation

    指标评分龙虾外观龙虾气味虾仁色泽虾仁肉质
    3虾壳有鲜红色光泽,虾体无黑色斑点,汁液透明鲜香,无异味虾肉亮白虾肉完整,弹性良好
    2虾壳呈暗红色,无光泽感,虾体无黑色斑点,汁液透明鲜味较淡,无异味虾肉灰白虾肉完整,弹性一般
    1虾壳发白或发黄,出现少许黑色斑点,渗出液浑浊具有淡淡的氨味,无臭味虾肉偏灰,无光泽虾肉松散,弹性较差
    0虾壳暗淡,虾体有黑色斑点,渗出液发黑强烈的氨味和臭味虾肉发黑虾肉软烂,不成形
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  小龙虾的微波杀菌工艺

    Table  3.   Different microwave sterilization processes of crayfish

    目标F0(min)微波功率(kW)微波处理时长(s)保温温度(℃)保温时间(s)实际F0(min)
    0.56.5150119.71800.5±0.08
    1.06.5150119.12001.0±0.06
    1.56.5150119.92201.5±0.10
    2.06.5190120.61802.0±0.09
    3.06.5190121.02003.0±0.11
    4.06.5190120.82204.0±0.13
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同热处理程度(F0)虾仁的质构特性和感官评分

    Table  4.   Texture and sensory evaluation of crayfish with different F0 value

    F0(min)硬度(g)弹性咀嚼性(g)形态气味滋味口感
    0.51231±24.36a0.77±0.02ab722.83±19.10a2.75±0.09a2.65±0.08a2.51±0.11a2.83±0.04a
    11135±26.34b0.78±0.05ab717.11±23.50ab2.63±0.11ab2.77±0.11a2.47±0.14a2.76±0.06b
    1.51108±32.15b0.81±0.04a680.24±26.80b2.62±0.07b2.67±0.07a2.32±0.08a2.65±0.07c
    2955±41.55c0.71±0.05bc528.88±31.18c2.51±0.11b2.72±0.09a2.37±0.13a2.44±0.08d
    3866±55.48d0.69±0.07c507.91±35.32c1.95±0.19c2.84±0.15a2.48±0.07a2.03±0.13e
    4821±47.98e0.65±0.05c435.85±32.18d1.31±0.21d2.73±0.14a2.47±0.12a1.25±0.15f
    注:同列不同字母表示差异显著(P<0.05);表6表8表9同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同贮藏时间的菌落总数((36±1) ℃)

    Table  5.   Colonies number for different storage time(36±1) ℃)

    F0(min)杀菌前(CFU/g)0 d(CFU/g)10 d(CFU/g)20 d(CFU/g)30 d(CFU/g)
    0.52.07×1064.59×102已腐败
    1.01.53×1063.31×101已腐败
    1.52.6×106未检出<10已腐败
    2.03.38×107未检出未检出未检出未检出
    3.02.7×106未检出未检出未检出未检出
    4.01.6×106未检出未检出未检出未检出
    注:“−”表示样品已腐败未进行后续测定。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同杀菌处理后小龙虾的蒸煮值

    Table  6.   Cook value of crayfish during different sterilization processes

    处理方式F0(min)冷点C值(min)表面C值(min)总杀菌时间(min)
    微波杀菌2.19±0.18a18.23±1.53b25.86±0.54b9.2±0.51b
    传统杀菌2.00±0.06a27.79±0.76a61.21±0.43a27.5±0.25a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同贮藏时间下小龙虾的菌落总数((20±5) ℃)

    Table  7.   Colonies number of crayfish in different storage time((20±5) ℃)

    贮藏时间(月)0123456
    未处理(CFU/g)107
    微波杀菌(CFU/g)未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出
    传统杀菌(CFU/g)未检出未检出未检出<10<100104108
    注:“−”表示样品已腐败未进行后续测定
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  不同杀菌处理后小龙虾的持水性和脱壳完整率

    Table  8.   Water holding capacity and ratio of intact tail of crayfish processed by different sterilization processes

    处理方式F0(min)汁液流失率(%)加压失水率(%)脱壳完整率(%)
    微波杀菌2.19±0.18a11.36±1.03b18.25±2.29a82.34±9.29a
    传统杀菌2.00±0.06a14.84±0.84a12.58±1.56b75.85±7.53a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  不同杀菌处理对小龙虾色泽的影响

    Table  9.   Effect of different sterilization processes on color of crayfish

    处理方式L*a*b*
    微波杀菌64.35±1.52b25.64±1.33a26.97±1.32a
    传统杀菌72.84±1.26a23.71±0.95b23.58±1.18b
    下载: 导出CSV
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