两种扣囊复膜酵母在清香型麸曲白酒生产中的应用

马美荣 刘小改 李洪媛 周林艳 单群 王小伟 张坤

马美荣,刘小改,李洪媛,等. 两种扣囊复膜酵母在清香型麸曲白酒生产中的应用[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(21):132−138. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010212
引用本文: 马美荣,刘小改,李洪媛,等. 两种扣囊复膜酵母在清香型麸曲白酒生产中的应用[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(21):132−138. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010212
MA Meirong, LIU Xiaogai, LI Hongyuan, et al. The Application of Two Kinds of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera in Mild-flavour Fuqu Baijiu Production[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(21): 132−138. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010212
Citation: MA Meirong, LIU Xiaogai, LI Hongyuan, et al. The Application of Two Kinds of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera in Mild-flavour Fuqu Baijiu Production[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(21): 132−138. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010212

两种扣囊复膜酵母在清香型麸曲白酒生产中的应用

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010212
详细信息
    作者简介:

    马美荣(1972−),男,博士,高级工程师,研究方向:白酒微生物,E-mail:mmr@redstarwine.com

  • 中图分类号: TS262.3

The Application of Two Kinds of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera in Mild-flavour Fuqu Baijiu Production

  • 摘要: 为了改善清香型麸曲白酒辛辣、欠醇厚绵柔的缺陷,在生产中应用扣囊复膜酵母,以期改善原酒的品质。本实验制备了两种扣囊复膜酵母(扣囊复膜酵母T(NT)、扣囊复膜酵母L(NL))麸曲,对麸曲进行感官评价、风味物质分析,进行产酸能力、糖化力、发酵力分析;麸曲应用于清香型麸曲白酒酿造生产,分析原料出酒率、原酒风味成分,对酒样进行感官评价。结果表明,NL麸曲呈奶油香、花香,花香较明显,NT麸曲呈奶油香、曲香,曲香较明显,NL麸曲的酯类物质、酮类物质、酸类物质的含量比NT麸曲分别高6.56%、15.35%、32.28%,但其醛类物质、醇类物质的含量比NT麸曲分别低6.01%、2.75%。两种麸曲都具有一定的产酸能力、糖化能力、发酵能力。扣囊复膜酵母麸曲应用于清香型麸曲白酒发酵,在不同实验条件下,各实验方案的平均出酒率高于对照的平均出酒率,方案1的平均出酒率最高,比对照的平均出酒率相对提高了4.42%。各实验方案增加了原酒的绵甜感,提升了品质,具有推广应用价值。
  • 图  1  酒样品评风味轮

    Figure  1.  Baijiu sample tasting wheel

    表  1  扣囊复膜酵母麸曲感官评价

    Table  1.   Sensory evaluation of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera fuqu

    麸曲感官评价
    NL颜色发白,表面及断面皆有白点,结块较密,奶油香、花香。
    NT颜色发白,表面及断面皆有白点,结块较密,奶油香、曲香。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  扣囊复膜酵母麸曲提取液气相色谱分析结果

    Table  2.   GC analysis results of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera fuqu extraction liquid

    化合物名称香气特征[25]NL(mg/L)NT(mg/L)
    酯类化合物甲酸乙酯近似乙酸乙酯香气,有较稀薄的水果香5.944.25
    乙酸乙酯乙醚状新鲜香气、水果香,具白酒清香感16.0817.96
    戊酸乙酯似菠萝香气,味浓刺舌89.4693.37
    丁二酸二乙酯水果香、甜香、西瓜香3.934.35
    棕榈酸乙酯无香味或油味24.8624.59
    油酸乙酯无香味或油味27.9823.31
    亚油酸乙酯无香味或油味57.9944.48
    醛类化合物乙醛醚类窜透性刺激臭,有陈谷物的气味38.1240.32
    乙缩醛水果香、甘草和青草香302.24320.48
    酮类化合物丙酮类似乙醛臭及辛辣甜味4.423.75
    3-羟基-2-丁酮有特殊气味,近似细菌臭,稍有糟香0.990.89
    酸类化合物乙酸醋酸气味,爽口带甜27.6814.27
    丙酸闻有酸味,进口柔和微涩0.320.3
    异丁酸轻度黄油臭味,汗臭味0.420.8
    丁酸轻度黄油臭味,汗臭味0.660
    异戊酸脂防臭,似丁酸气味5.5910.84
    醇类化合物甲醇有温和的酒精气味具有烧灼感20.6221.64
    正丙醇似醚臭,有苦味7.777.55
    正戊醇微带刺激臭,似酒精气味0.280.08
    2,3-丁二醇(左旋)有甜味,可使酒具有甜感1.531.2
    2,3-丁二醇(内消旋)有甜味,可使酒具有甜感4.735.42
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  扣囊复膜酵母麸曲多元醇分析结果

    Table  3.   Polyhydric alcohols analysis results of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera fuqu

    麸曲丙三醇(mg/kg)赤藓糖醇(mg/kg)木糖醇
    (mg/kg)
    甘露醇
    (mg/kg)
    阿拉伯糖醇(mg/kg)葡萄糖
    (mg/kg)
    麦芽糖醇(mg/kg)蔗糖
    (mg/kg)
    NT573.30±1.60未检出未检出未检出42.90±0.56未检出未检出未检出
    NL426.90±0.90未检出未检出未检出40.65±0.23未检出未检出未检出
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  扣囊复膜酵母麸曲理化指标

    Table  4.   Physicochemical indexes of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera fuqu

    麸曲酸度糖化力(U/g)发酵力(U)
    NL1.13±0.14936±46.13a0.76±0.49
    NT1.03±0.16652±24.33b0.91±0.31
    注:表中同列肩标不同小写字母表示在0.05水平上差异显著。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同实验方案的生产数据

    Table  5.   The production data of different experimental schemes

    方案酒度(%voL)出酒量(㎏)出酒率(%)
    对照65.58±0.8722.50±1.1345.44±2.03
    方案165.18±0.5123.70±1.7747.54±3.40
    方案265.14±0.5923.10±1.1946.32±2.04
    方案365.28±0.9122.88±0.9846.33±2.39
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  实验酒样气相色谱分析结果(mg/L)

    Table  6.   GC analysis results of experimental baijiu samples(mg/L)

    化合物名称香气特征[25]对照方案1方案2方案3
    酯类化合物乙酸乙酯乙醚状新鲜香气、水果香,具白酒清香感1333.551525.451476.561395.57
    乳酸乙酯香弱,味微甜,适量有浓厚感,过浓有青草味64.1047.9456.81100.38
    甲酸乙酯近似乙酸乙酯香气,有较稀薄的水果香8.2310.457.799.81
    丁酸乙酯似菠萝香,带脂防臭,爽快可口4.553.970.400.00
    乙酸异戊酯似梨、苹果香和香蕉油香气7.437.328.009.51
    己酸乙酯似红玉苹果香,味爽,具白酒窖香感2.732.141.912.05
    辛酸乙酯似梨或菠萝香4.443.553.693.68
    癸酸乙酯似玫瑰香,冲鼻,放置后浑浊4.844.484.314.69
    丁二酸二乙酯水果香、西瓜香4.684.405.657.28
    月桂酸乙酯有月桂油香味,带油珠1.251.211.311.20
    棕榈酸乙酯无香味或油味72.0261.2865.3167.27
    油酸乙酯无香味或油味52.6243.1845.0046.36
    亚油酸乙酯无香味或油味69.4858.6361.1062.34
    醛类化合物乙醛醚类窜透性刺激臭,有陈谷物的气味177.63232.81217.06269.71
    异丁醛有刺激性气味1.882.822.132.69
    乙缩醛水果香、甘草和青草香274.14365.81332.73404.96
    异戊醛带苹果香,似酱油香味4.315.917.906.84
    糠醛有焦糖香10.6214.9213.9415.54
    醇类化合物甲醇有温和的酒精气味具有烧灼感108.32106.40108.45105.46
    仲丁醇具有强的芳香味,爽口,味短3.713.222.083.75
    正丙醇似醚臭,有苦味306.38404.34365.14382.01
    异丁醇似酒精气味,有糙辣感481.28475.43482.25489.47
    正丁醇香气极淡,稍有茉莉香,主要是杂醇油香5.406.125.324.80
    活性戊醇杂醇油气味有芳香、微甜302.58301.67341.71325.70
    异戊醇杂醇油气味,刺舌稍苦涩605.10763.62684.66721.71
    正戊醇微带刺激臭,似酒精气味2.612.612.372.42
    正己醇有强烈芳香,味持久,有浓厚感1.521.541.461.55
    2,3-丁二醇(左旋)有甜味,可使酒具有甜感30.7245.0839.2735.96
    2,3-丁二醇(内消旋)有甜味,可使酒具有甜感34.1154.2844.5740.54
    1,2-丙二醇有甜味,可使酒具有甜感2.012.161.881.89
    β-苯乙醇玫瑰香、蜂蜜香12.1714.2615.6716.06
    糠醇有焦糖香、味苦12.9713.7314.7915.77
    酮类化合物丙酮类似乙醛臭及辛辣甜味4.745.564.525.64
    3-羟基-2-丁酮有特殊气味,近似细菌臭,稍有糟香13.5516.8225.3625.60
    酸类化合物乙酸醋酸气味,爽口带甜391.22426.96471.66414.33
    丙酸闻有酸味,进口柔和微涩5.345.404.245.14
    异丁酸轻度黄油臭味,汗臭味0.610.670.660.64
    丁酸轻度黄油臭味,汗臭味5.385.711.611.29
    异戊酸脂防臭,似丁酸气味0.711.041.261.08
    己酸强脂肪臭,有刺激感5.054.274.184.20
    辛酸脂肪臭微有刺激感0.300.690.230.07
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  实验酒样多元醇分析结果

    Table  7.   Polyhydric alcohols analysis results of experimental baijiu samples

    方案丙三醇
    (mg/L)
    赤藓糖醇
    (mg/L)
    木糖醇
    (mg/L)
    甘露醇
    (mg/L)
    阿拉伯糖醇(mg/L)葡萄糖
    (mg/L)
    麦芽糖醇
    (mg/L)
    蔗糖
    (mg/L)
    对照60.782±0.023未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出
    方案167.845±0.0652.754±0.0028未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出
    方案259.457±0.0442.202±0.0014未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出
    方案360.564±0.0321.884±0.0022未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出未检出
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  酒样感官品评结果

    Table  8.   Results of sensory evaluation of baijiu samples

    方案品评结论
    对照清香纯正、略带辅料杂感、入口较甜、稍带刺激感、酒体爽净较协调、余味略短。
    方案1清香纯正、复合香气优雅、入口醇甜、柔顺、酒体醇厚协调、余味悠长。
    方案2清香纯正、带粮糟香气、入口醇甜感较突出、柔和、酒体较协调、余味悠长。
    方案3清香纯正、带粮香、入口醇甜、较柔和、酒体协调、后口略短微苦。
    下载: 导出CSV
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    Fan W L, Xu Y. Flavor chemistry of liquor[M]. Beijing: China Light Industry Press, 2014: 85−123.
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-14

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    《食品工业科技》编辑部携手万方数据开通学术不端专属检测通道,具体信息参见本刊动态。