藜麦酸奶混菌发酵工艺优化及品质与风味评价

常嘉乐 张婷 袁亚宏 岳田利

常嘉乐,张婷,袁亚宏,等. 藜麦酸奶混菌发酵工艺优化及品质与风味评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):197−208. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010136
引用本文: 常嘉乐,张婷,袁亚宏,等. 藜麦酸奶混菌发酵工艺优化及品质与风味评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):197−208. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010136
CHANG Jiale, ZHANG Ting, YUAN Yahong, et al. Optimization of Fermentation Process and Evaluation of Quality and Flavor of Quinoa Yogurt Produced by Mixed Lactic Acid Bacteria[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 197−208. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010136
Citation: CHANG Jiale, ZHANG Ting, YUAN Yahong, et al. Optimization of Fermentation Process and Evaluation of Quality and Flavor of Quinoa Yogurt Produced by Mixed Lactic Acid Bacteria[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 197−208. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010136

藜麦酸奶混菌发酵工艺优化及品质与风味评价

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010136
基金项目: “十三五”重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1606703)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    常嘉乐(1997−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品功能化加工工程技术,E-mail:cjl0328nwafu@126.com

    通讯作者:

    岳田利(1965−),男,博士,教授,研究方向:食品安全识别控制工程,E-mail:yuetl@nwafu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS252.54

Optimization of Fermentation Process and Evaluation of Quality and Flavor of Quinoa Yogurt Produced by Mixed Lactic Acid Bacteria

  • 摘要: 本研究以膨化藜麦粉、牛奶为原料,选取嗜热链球菌6063、保加利亚乳杆菌6064、动物双歧杆菌B15混合发酵藜麦牛奶,在单因素实验基础上采用正交试验对发酵工艺进行优化,并探究膨化藜麦粉的添加对酸奶品质及风味的影响。结果表明,三种益生菌发酵藜麦酸奶的最佳菌种配比为嗜热链球菌:保加利亚乳杆菌:动物双歧杆菌=2:1:2,最佳工艺为接菌量2%(v/v),藜麦添加量5%(w/v),发酵温度41 ℃。在此条件下,藜麦酸奶风味良好,乳酸菌总活菌数达到109 CFU/mL。从发酵开始至贮藏21 d结束,藜麦酸奶可滴定酸度始终高于纯酸奶,乳酸菌总活菌数低于纯酸奶。藜麦酸奶成品的蛋白质、多酚及黄酮含量分别比纯酸奶提高了88.67%、166.67%、284.62%。乳酸、甲酸、乙酸、丙酮酸含量分别为5.80、1.42、0.11、0.01 mg/g。利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行风味分析,藜麦酸奶中共检出74种挥发性风味物质,与纯酸奶相比,新产生30种挥发性风味物质。研究结果将为藜麦酸奶新产品的开发提供工艺依据,进一步促进藜麦的应用与开发。
  • 图  1  藜麦酸奶制作工艺

    Figure  1.  Production process of quinoa yogurt

    图  2  接菌量对藜麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  2.  Effect of inoculum size on the quality of quinoa yogurt

    图  3  藜麦添加量对藜麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  3.  Effect of quinoa additive amount on the quality of quinoa yogurt

    图  4  发酵温度对藜麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  4.  Effect of fermentation temperature on the quality of quinoa yogurt

    图  5  藜麦酸奶营养成分

    Figure  5.  Nutritional content of quinoa yogurt

    图  6  藜麦酸奶活菌数及酸度动态监测

    Figure  6.  Dynamic monitoring of viable cell count and acidity of quinoa yogurt

    表  1  藜麦酸奶菌种体积比例组合

    Table  1.   Volume proportional of three lactic acid bacteria in quinoa yoghurt

    试验号嗜热链球菌6063保加利亚乳杆菌6064动物双歧杆菌B15
    1213
    2312
    3111
    4212
    5133
    6323
    7331
    8232
    9221
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  正交试验L8(27)因素水平表

    Table  2.   Factors and levels table for L8 (27) orthogonal experiment

    水平因素
    A 接菌量(%)B 藜麦添加量(%)C 发酵温度(℃)
    12341
    23543
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  藜麦酸奶感官评分标准表

    Table  3.   Sensory evaluation standard for quinoa yoghurt

    品评内容感官评定标准
    优(15~20 分)良(10~14 分)中(5~9 分)差(0~4 分)
    外观(20 分)组织细腻均匀且基本无乳清析出组织细腻均匀、乳清析出较少组织较松散、凝固不牢、乳清较多组织松散或有气泡、乳清析出量大
    色泽(20 分)色泽均匀一致、为藜麦正常淡黄色色泽均匀一致、黄色略深或略浅颜色不太均匀颜色不均匀、黄白相间
    气味(20 分)有浓郁酸奶香味和藜麦风味有酸奶香味、藜麦风味不太明显只有酸奶香味、完全无谷物风味几乎无香味
    滋味-前味(20 分)入口细腻、醇厚、富有典型的谷物酸奶风味入口细腻、有藜麦风味入口较粗糙、无藜麦风味入口粗糙、有不溶物、无藜麦风味
    滋味-后味(20分)完全无涩味或其他任何不愉悦风味滞留无涩味异味滞留略有涩味异味、勉强能接受有严重涩味异味、无法接受
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  藜麦酸奶不同菌种配比试验

    Table  4.   Experiments on the different proportions of quinoa yoghurt strains

    组合嗜热链球菌保加利亚乳杆菌动物双歧杆菌持水力(%)酸度(°T)感官(分)硬度(g)稠度(g/se)活菌数(108 CFU/mL)
    121370.9680.2771.655.741390.060.84
    231266.8373.9870.451.321287.000.98
    311172.3671.1873.151.821299.171.18
    421271.2373.7972.961.881616.131.49
    513364.6161.3674.451.371236.322.63
    632368.4660.9667.850.541226.291.54
    733168.0262.568.346.071125.881.37
    823267.9255.8467.244.791080.311.49
    922166.4160.0168.442.581055.111.24
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  提取主成分特征值及贡献率

    Table  5.   Extraction of principal component eigenvalues and contribution rate

    主成分特征值贡献率(%)累计贡献率(%)
    13.67061.16761.167
    21.59026.49687.663
    30.4196.98694.649
    40.2964.92699.575
    50.0240.40099.975
    60.0010.025100.000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  主要指标的特征向量

    Table  6.   Eigenvectors of principal components

    主成分1主成分2
    持水力0.729−0.465
    酸度0.902−0.215
    感官0.6820.612
    硬度0.9350.241
    稠度0.9490.171
    活菌数−0.2940.931
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  规格化特征向量及F值

    Table  7.   The standardized eigenvector and F value

    试验号因子1因子2α1α2得分F排序
    11.18−0.782.262.855.122
    20.22−0.400.420.530.954
    30.77−0.341.481.863.343
    41.610.523.083.886.961
    5−0.382.49−0.73−0.92−1.655
    6−0.43−0.17−0.83−1.05−1.876
    7−0.71−0.45−1.35−1.71−3.067
    8−1.13−0.40−2.16−2.72−4.888
    9−1.13−0.48−2.17−2.73−4.909
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  L8(27)正交试验表及极差分析结果

    Table  8.   L8 (27) orthogonal experimental and range analysis results

    样品号ABABCACBCABC稠度(g/se)酸度(°T)
    111111111288.4886.59
    211122221395.5991.75
    312211221464.64117.93
    412222111421.44103.78
    521212121095.7383.65
    621221211267.0282.99
    722112211405.49112.88
    822121121455.5105.41
    稠度K11392.541261.711386.271313.591368.911315.291345.61
    K21305.941436.771312.211384.891329.561383.191352.87
    R86.60175.0674.0671.3039.3567.907.26
    酸度K1100.0186.2599.16100.2698.2394.8696.56
    K296.23110.0097.0995.9898.02101.3999.69
    R3.7823.762.074.280.226.533.13
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  藜麦酸奶稠度的方差分析

    Table  9.   Variance analysis on consistency of quinoa yogurt

    方差来源III型平方和df均方FSig.显著性
    A14999.986114999.9863.6230.153
    B61293.758161293.75814.8030.031*
    AB10969.027110969.0272.6490.202
    C10168.093110168.0932.4560.215
    误差12421.93534140.645
    总计14673360.4658
    校正的总计109852.7997
    注:*表示差异显著,P<0.05;**表示差异极显著,P<0.01,表10表12同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  藜麦酸奶酸度的方差分析

    Table  10.   Variance analysis on acidity of quinoa yogurt

    方差来源III型平方和df均方FSig.显著性
    A28.577128.577309.1050.036*
    B1128.60011128.60012207.6800.006**
    AB8.57018.57092.6970.066
    C36.637136.637396.2880.032*
    BC85.282185.282922.4640.021*
    ABC19.531119.531211.2630.044*
    误差.0921.092
    总计78331.4898
    校正的总计1307.2897
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  酸度B、C二元表

    Table  11.   B-C binary table of acidity

    因素C1C2
    B185.1287.37
    B2115.41104.59
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  12  藜麦酸奶中四种有机酸含量对比(mg/g)

    Table  12.   Comparison of four organic acids in quinoa yogurt (mg/g)

    有机酸纯酸奶藜麦酸奶
    乳酸4.69±0.175.80±0.26**
    甲酸1.63±0.151.42±0.13**
    乙酸0.05±0.000.11±0.04
    丙酮酸0.03±0.000.01±0.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  13  藜麦酸奶中挥发性风味物质种类及含量

    Table  13.   Volatile flavor compounds and contents in quinoa yoghurt

    序号保留时间
    (±0.05 s)
    中文名称英文名称纯酸奶 藜麦酸奶
    香气含量(mg/L)相对含量(%)香气含量(mg/L)相对含量(%)
    醇类
    14.92乙醇Ethanol0.036±0.020.810.012±0.010.23
    28.632-(1-甲基乙氧基)-乙醇2-methoxy-acetate-Ethanol0.345±0.037.720.330±0.056.42
    39.833-甲基-1-丁醇3-methyl-1-Butanol0.808±0.0318.080.233±0.044.53
    49.972-甲基-1-丁醇2-methyl-1-Butanol0.274±0.056.130.083±0.011.61
    511.021-戊醇1-Pentanol0.031±0.020.6
    613.894-甲基-1-戊醇4-methyl-1-Pentanol0.076±0.031.70.008±0.000.16
    719.774氢-2,5-二甲基-2H-吡喃甲醇tetrahydro-2,5-dimethyl -2H-Pyranmethanol0.009±0.000.18
    821.114-乙基环己醇4-Ethylcyclohexanol0.223±0.024.34
    922.562-乙基-1-己醇2-Ethyl-1-hexanol0.077±0.011.5
    1028.96α-松油醇alpha-Terpineol0.010±0.010.19
    醛类
    114.58乙醛Acetaldehyde0.043±0.0030.960.021±0.0020.41
    125.72-甲基丙醛2-methyl-Propanal0.012±0.000.23
    137.592-甲基丁醛2-methyl-Butanal0.014±0.010.27
    1412.02己醛Hexanal0.104±0.052.330.111±0.032.16
    1514.882-正丁基丙烯醛2-n-Butylacrolein0.023±0.010.510.025±0.010.49
    1616.47庚醛Heptanal0.012±0.010.270.018±0.010.35
    1718.8苯甲醛Benzaldehyde0.008±0.000.180.021±0.020.41
    1825.5壬醛Nonanal0.026±0.050.58 0.100±0.041.95
    1929.27癸醛Decanal0.003±0.000.070.025±0.020.49
    2029.392,4-二甲基苯甲醛2,4-dimethyl-Benzaldehyde0.010±0.000.19
    萜烯类
    2118.95α-蒎烯(1R)-2,6,6-Trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]
    hept-2-ene
    0.010±0.000.19
    2223.02D-柠檬烯D-Limonene0.153±0.003.420.251±0.054.88
    2324.2γ-松油烯gamma-Terpinene0.005±0.000.1
    2435.28α-古巴烯alfa-Copaene0.009±0.000.18
    2536.22长叶烯Longifolene0.008±0.000.16
    2636.48石竹烯Caryophyllene0.004±0.000.08
    烃类
    275.28戊烷Pentane0.225±0.044.38
    288.852,2,4-三甲基戊烷2,2,4-trimethyl-Pentane0.936±0.0520.941.028±0.0620
    2910.362,2,3-三甲基-己烷2,2,3-trimethyl-Hexane0.006±0.000.130.008±0.000.16
    3010.973-乙基-戊烷3-ethyl-Pentane0.008±0.000.180.008±0.000.16
    3111.13甲苯Toluene0.018±0.010.40.026±0.010.51
    3212.982,4-二甲基-己烷2,4-dimethyl-Hexane0.018±0.010.35
    3313.13顺式-1,4-二甲基-环己烷1,4-dimethyl-cis-Cyclohexane0.005±0.000.110.008±0.000.16
    3415.5邻二甲苯o-Xylene0.008±0.000.180.012±0.000.23
    3516.28苯乙烯Styrene0.003±0.000.070.008±0.000.16
    3624.363-甲基-5-丙基-壬烷3-methyl-5-propyl-Nonane0.004±0.000.090.005±0.000.1
    3724.635-(2-甲基丙基)壬烷5-(2-methylpropyl)-Nonane0.035±0.010.780.057±0.031.11
    3824.864,6-二甲基-十二烷4,6-dimethyl-Dodecane0.013±0.010.290.019±0.010.37
    3926.17十一烷Undecane0.015±0.000.340.039±0.030.76
    4029.77十二烷Dodecane0.056±0.041.09
    4130.09十六烷2,4-dimethyl-Benzaldehyde0.008±0.000.16
    4230.291-溴代二十烷1-Bromoeicosane0.022±0.010.43
    4330.554-甲基十二烷4-methyl-Dodecane0.009±0.000.18
    4431.91十七烷Heptadecane0.002±0.000.040.013±0.010.25
    4532.88十四烷Tetradecane0.051±0.040.99
    4634.692-甲基二十四烷2-Methyltetracosane0.012±0.020.23
    4737.242,6,10-三甲基十三烷2,6,10-Trimethyltridecane0.024±0.020.47
    酮类
    485.07丙酮Acetone0.156±0.033.04
    496.032,3-丁二酮2,3-Butanedione0.354±0.027.920.641±0.0312.47
    506.212-丁酮2-Butanone0.066±0.011.480.013±0.000.25
    518.152-戊酮2-Pentanone0.048±0.030.93
    5211.652-己酮2-Hexanone0.005±0.000.1
    5315.992-庚酮2-Heptanone0.165±0.023.690.220±0.044.28
    5420.36-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮6-methyl-5-Hepten-2-one0.022±0.010.43
    5520.582-辛酮2-Octanone0.006±0.000.130.015±0.010.29
    5623.53苯乙酮Acetophenone0.007±0.000.14
    5723.843,5-辛二烯-2-酮3,5-Octadien-2-one0.005±0.000.1
    5825.002-壬酮2-Nonanone0.025±0.010.560.036±0.020.7
    5927.14D(+)-樟脑(+)-2-Bornanone0.005±0.000.110.059±0.041.15
    6032.112-十一烷酮2-Undecanone0.007±0.000.14
    酯类
    619.09乙酸正丙酯n-Propyl acetate0.078±0.021.750.071±0.021.38
    629.38丁酸甲酯Butanoic acid, methyl ester0.020±0.020.450.025±0.010.49
    6312.33丁酸乙酯Butanoic acid, ethyl ester0.022±0.010.490.023±0.020.45
    6412.69丙酸丙酯Propanoic acid, propyl ester0.015±0.000.340.017±0.020.33
    6512.84乙酸丁酯Acetic acid, butyl ester0.067±0.021.50.059±0.011.15
    6615.27甲酸己酯Formic acid, hexyl ester0.058±0.011.3 0.119±0.062.32
    6715.593-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯1-Butanol-3-methyl-acetate0.446±0.059.980.103±0.032
    6817.23乙酸戊酯Acetic acid, pentyl ester0.005±0.000.110.005±0.000.1
    6930.66乙酸苯乙酯Acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester0.088±0.031.970.007±0.000.14
    醚类
    705.36二甲基硫醚Dimethyl sulfide0.048±0.021.070.059±0.011.15
    酸类
    716.36乙酸Acetic acid0.020±0.010.450.004±0.000.08
    酚类
    7237.883,5-双(1,1-二甲基乙基)-苯酚3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-Phenol0.003±0.000.070.006±0.000.12
    其他
    7321.062-戊基-呋喃2-pentyl-Furan0.014±0.010.310.089±0.021.73
    7429.64苯并噻唑Benzothiazole0.003±0.000.06
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  14  酸奶中挥发性风味物质分类

    Table  14.   Classification of volatile flavor compounds in yoghurt

    种类纯酸奶 藜麦酸奶
    数量相对含量(%)数量相对含量(%)
    醇类5种34.44 10种19.76
    醛类7种4.9510种6.8
    萜烯类1种3.426种5.59
    烃类12种23.5121种32.25
    酮类6种13.8913种24.02
    酯类9种17.899种8.36
    醚类1种1.071种1.15
    酸类1种0.451种0.08
    酚类1种0.071种0.12
    其他1种0.312种1.79
    总计44种74种
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-05
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-14

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