贵州不同品种芸豆营养品质差异分析

叶夕苗 李俊 毛堂芬 马智黠 徐娟 陶靖 宋磊 卢扬

叶夕苗,李俊,毛堂芬,等. 贵州不同品种芸豆营养品质差异分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):73−80. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010107
引用本文: 叶夕苗,李俊,毛堂芬,等. 贵州不同品种芸豆营养品质差异分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):73−80. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010107
YE Ximiao, LI Jun, MAO Tangfen, et al. Analysis on the Difference of Nutritional Quality of Different Kidney Bean Varieties in Guizhou[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 73−80. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010107
Citation: YE Ximiao, LI Jun, MAO Tangfen, et al. Analysis on the Difference of Nutritional Quality of Different Kidney Bean Varieties in Guizhou[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 73−80. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010107

贵州不同品种芸豆营养品质差异分析

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010107
基金项目: 贵州省科技支撑计划项目(黔科合成果[2017]4104);贵州省现代农业(特色杂粮)产业技术体系建设项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    叶夕苗(1993−),女,硕士研究生,研究实习员,研究方向:作物遗传育种,E-mail:-mail:yeximiaogs@163.com

    通讯作者:

    卢扬(1981−),男,硕士,副研究员,研究方向:食品安全,E-mail:499528997@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: TS214.9

Analysis on the Difference of Nutritional Quality of Different Kidney Bean Varieties in Guizhou

  • 摘要: 探究大白芸豆、红芸豆、黑花芸豆、红腰豆和中白芸豆主要营养成分含量差异,对其营养品质进行分析与评价。以5个芸豆品种为试验材料,测定芸豆的蛋白质、脂肪、淀粉、灰分、矿物质元素、氨基酸和脂肪酸含量。结果表明:供试芸豆的蛋白质、脂肪、淀粉和灰分含量品种间差异极显著(P<0.01),其含量分别为17.30~23.70、1.10~1.90、34.90~38.30、4.00~4.80 g/100 g。中白芸豆蛋白质和淀粉含量最高,分别为23.70、38.30 g/100 g;黑花芸豆K、Ca、Na和Mg含量最高,分别为1.99×104、1.15×103、33.40、1.79×103 mg/kg,中白芸豆Fe和Zn含量最高,分别为77.10、41.80 mg/kg,中白芸豆Na含量最低,为25.40 mg/kg;氨基酸含量范围是0.08~3.75 g/100 g,中白芸豆必需氨基酸(EAA)、非必需氨基酸(NEAA)和总氨基酸(TAA)含量最高,分别为8.86、14.17、23.03 g/100 g;5种芸豆脂肪酸含量范围是0.0020~0.8913 g/100 g,含有16种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有9种,单不饱和脂肪酸有3种,多不饱和脂肪酸有4种,其含量排序依次为多不饱和脂肪酸>饱和脂肪酸>单不饱和脂肪酸,大白芸豆脂肪酸含量最高,为2.02 g/100 g。中白芸豆多不饱和脂肪酸与饱和脂肪酸比率(PS)最低,数值为4.14,红腰豆动脉粥硬化指数(AI)值最低,数值为0.005。综合多种营养成分含量分析,中白芸豆营养品质优于大白芸豆、红芸豆、黑花芸豆、红腰豆。
  • 表  1  芸豆基本成分分析

    Table  1.   Analysis for basic components in kidney bean

    指标黑花芸豆大白芸豆中白芸豆红芸豆红腰豆
    蛋白质17.30±0.01e18.70±0.01d23.70±0.01a22.10±0.02c22.30±0.04b
    脂肪1.90±0.01a1.40±0.02b1.20±0.02c1.10±0.10c1.10±0.02c
    淀粉34.90±0.01d38.30±0.01a38.30±0.01a36.00±0.12c36.60±0.05b
    灰分4.80±0.01a4.70±0.02a4.20±0.03b4.10±0.09b4.00±0.20b
    注:单位为g/100 g。同一行上标不同字母表示差异显著(P<0.05),同一行上标字母相同表示差异不显著(P>0.05)。
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    表  2  芸豆基本成分方差分析

    Table  2.   Analysis of variance for basic components in kidney bean

    性状变异来源自由度平方和均方F检验显著性
    蛋白质品种487.02421.7561.116E+05**
    重复20.002440.001226.26不显著
    残差80.001560.000195
    总变异1487.028
    脂肪品种41.3560.339190.59**
    重复20.0079320.0039662.23不显著
    残差80.014230.001779
    总变异141.378162
    淀粉品种426.3646.5912021.78**
    重复20.005320.002660.82不显著
    残差80.026080.00326
    总变异1426.3954
    灰分品种41.5960.39958.16**
    重复20.041320.020663.01不显著
    残差80.054880.00686
    总变异141.6922
    注:*代表P<0.05,结果显著;**代表P<0.01,结果极显著。
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    表  3  芸豆矿物质元素分析

    Table  3.   Analysis of mineral elements in kidney bean

    矿物质黑花芸豆大白芸豆中白芸豆红芸豆红腰豆
    汞(Hg)0.01±0.00a0.01±0.00a0.01±0.00a0.02±0.00a0.01±0.00a
    铬(Cr)ND0.87±0.00a0.25±0.00bNDND
    锌(Zn)38.50±0.01c29.60±0.01e41.80±0.02a39.50±0.01b35.50±0.02d
    锰(Mn)15.60±0.01c21.60±0.02a20.60±0.50b16.00±0.03c15.60±0.04c
    铅(Pb)ND0.19±0.00bND0.08±0.00c0.49±0.01a
    铁(Fe)64.10±0.03e67.90±0.01c77.10±0.017a70.80±0.01b67.00±0.03d
    硒(Se)NDNDND0.04±0.00aND
    铜(Cu)5.44±0.01d3.66±0.01e8.13±0.01b8.27±0.01a7.03±0.01c
    钾(K,×1041.99±0.02a1.63±0.01b1.63±0.01b1.53±0.01c1.55±0.01c
    钙(Ca,×1031.15±0.01a1.05±0.01c1.30±0.01b0.82±0.00c0.84±0.00c
    钠(Na)33.40±0.03a32.00±0.03b25.40±0.01e26.60±0.03d29.10±0.03c
    镁(Mg,×1031.79±0.01a1.72±0.01b1.67±0.01c1.64±0.01d1.47±0.01e
    注:单位为mg/kg,ND表示未检出。
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    表  4  芸豆氨基酸含量分析

    Table  4.   Analysis of amino acid content in kidney bean

    氨基酸黑花芸豆大白芸豆中白芸豆红芸豆红腰豆
    苏氨酸*(Thr)0.77±0.02d0.89±0.03c1.17±0.01a0.90±0.01c1.01±0.01b
    缬氨酸*(Val)0.85±0.04d1.02±0.02c1.30±0.05a1.03±0.01c1.17±0.02b
    蛋氨酸*(Met)0.14±0.02a0.08±0.00b0.13±0.02ab0.10±0.03ab0.09±0.03ab
    异亮氨酸*(Ile)0.65±0.02e0.82±0.02d1.10±0.02a0.87±0.01c1.00±0.04b
    亮氨酸*(Leu)1.22±0.01d1.50±0.19c2.03±0.02a1.61±0.02cd1.83±0.01bc
    苯丙氨酸*(Phe)0.77±0.07d0.97±0.05c1.37±0.01a1.05±0.02c1.22±0.02b
    赖氨酸*(Lys)1.16±0.05b1.40±0.30ab1.76±0.01a1.38±0.02ab1.58±0.02a
    天冬氨酸(Asp)1.81±0.02e2.16±0.02d3.08±0.03a2.40±0.02c2.74±0.01b
    丝氨酸(Ser)0.90±0.04d1.07±0.07c1.51±0.03a1.18±0.01c1.33±0.01b
    谷氨酸(Glu)2.23±0.04e2.68±0.08d3.75±0.02a2.91±0.02c3.36±0.01b
    甘氨酸(Gly)0.63±0.04d0.73±0.03c0.94±0.01a0.73±0.01c0.84±0.01b
    丙氨酸(Ala)0.66±0.03d0.78±0.03c0.96±0.03a0.76±0.03c0.87±0.02b
    胱氨酸(Cys)0.10±0.01a0.08±0.00b0.06±0.00c0.08±0.00bc0.08±0.01bc
    酪氨酸(Tyr)0.48±0.03b0.49±0.03b0.63±0.01a0.47±0.01b0.61±0.01a
    组氨酸(His)0.48±0.04d0.56±0.03c0.81±0.01a0.56±0.03c0.70±0.03b
    精氨酸(Arg)0.91±0.02d1.09±0.05c1.36±0.01a1.06±0.02c1.23±0.01b
    脯氨酸(Pro)0.63±0.03d0.77±0.03c1.07±0.01a0.78±0.01c0.91±0.04b
    必需氨基酸(EAA)5.566.688.866.947.90
    非必需氨基酸(NEAA)8.8310.4114.1710.9312.67
    总氨基酸(TAA)14.3917.0923.0317.8720.57
    必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸的比值(EAA/NEAA)0.630.640.630.630.62
    必需氨基酸与总氨基酸的比值(EAA/TAA)0.390.390.380.390.38
    注:单位为g/100 g。带*为必需氨基酸,EAA表示必需氨基酸,NEAA表示非必需氨基酸,TAA表示总氨基酸,EAA/NEAA表示必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸的比值,EAA/TAA表示必需氨基酸与总氨基酸的比值。
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    表  5  芸豆中氨基酸评分

    Table  5.   Amino acid score in kidney bean

    氨基酸黑花芸豆大白芸豆中白芸豆红芸豆红腰豆全蛋模式
    异亮氨酸(Ile)0.700.810.860.730.8354
    亮氨酸(Leu)0.820.931.000.850.9586
    赖氨酸(Lys)0.961.071.060.891.0170
    蛋氨酸+胱氨酸(Met+Cys)0.240.150.140.140.1357
    苯丙氨酸+酪氨酸(Phe+Tyr)0.780.840.910.740.8893
    苏氨酸(Thr)0.951.011.050.870.9647
    丙氨酸(Ala)2.242.452.382.022.2917
    缬氨酸(Val)0.740.830.830.710.7966
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    表  6  芸豆脂肪酸含量分析

    Table  6.   Analysis of fatty acid content in kidney bean

    脂肪酸黑花芸豆大白芸豆中白芸豆红芸豆红腰豆
    肉豆蔻酸(C14: 0)0.0027±0.0003a0.0021±0.0001b0.0014±0.0001c0.0019±0.0001b0.0013±0.000c
    十五烷酸(C15: 0)0.0044±0.0001a0.0027±0.0001b0.0026±0.0001c0.0027±0.0001b0.0026±0.0002c
    棕榈酸(C16: 0)0.1935±0.0013a0.1982±0.0004b0.1861±0.0025c0.1678±0.0010d0.151±0.0003e
    棕榈油酸(C16: 1)0.003±0.0010a0.002±0.0003a0.0022±0.0001a0.0025±0.0003a0.0022±0.0001a
    十七烷酸(C17: 0)0.0067±0.0001a0.0061±0.0001b0.0058±0.0001c0.0046±0.0001d0.0047±0.0001d
    硬脂酸(C18: 0)0.0746±0.0002a0.0707±0.0001b0.0353±0.0003c0.0299±0.0002e0.0336±0.0002d
    油酸(C18: 1n9c)0.2116±0.0003a0.1963±0.0001b0.1346±0.0001c0.1016±0.0001e0.1137±0.0001d
    亚油酸(C18: 2n6c)0.8913±0.0002a0.7797±0.0001b0.3778±0.0001c0.3301±0.0001e0.354±0.0110d
    α-亚油酸(C18: 3n3)0.546±0.0001e0.7181±0.0004a0.7013±0.0003b0.6695±0.0015c0.5573±0.0040d
    顺-11-二十碳烯酸甲酯(C20: 1)0.003±0.0002b0.0032±0.0001a0.0028±0.0001c0.0019±0.0002d0.0018±0.0001d
    二十一碳酸(C21: 0)0.0005±0.0001b0.0008±0.0001a0.0008±0.0001a0.0008±0.0001a0.0008±0.0001a
    山嵛酸(二十二烷酸C22: 0)0.0043±0.0003b0.0046±0.0001b0.0066±0.0001a0.0038±0.0001c0.0045±0.0001b
    顺-8,11,14-二十碳三烯酸(C20: 3n6)0.0056±0.0001b0.0057±0.0002b0.0068±0.0001a0.007±0.0009a0.0056±0.0008b
    花生四烯酸(C20: 4n6)0.0097±0.0001a0.0094±0.0001b0.0082±0.0001c0.0062±0.0001d0.0051±0.0001e
    二十三酸(C23: 0)0.0069±0.0001c0.0081±0.0001b0.0098±0.0001a0.0068±0.0001c0.0059±0.0002d
    二十四酸(C24: 0)0.0139±0.0001b0.0132±0.0001d0.0159±0.0002c0.0141±0.0001b0.0135±0.0001a
    饱和脂肪酸(SFA)0.30750.30650.26430.23240.2179
    单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)0.21760.20150.13960.10600.1177
    多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)1.45261.51291.09411.01280.9220
    总脂肪酸含量(TG)1.982.021.501.351.26
    动脉粥硬化指数(AI)0.0110.0080.0060.0080.005
    多不饱和脂肪酸和饱和脂肪酸比值(PS)4.724.944.144.364.23
    注:单位为g/100 g。SFA为饱和脂肪酸,MUFA为单不饱和脂肪酸,PUFA为多不饱和脂肪酸,TG为总脂肪酸含量,AI(比率)=[C12: 0+4×C14: 0+C16: 0]/ Σ(MUFA+PUFA)为动脉粥硬化指数,PS(比率)=PUFA/SFA为多不饱和脂肪酸和饱和脂肪酸比值。
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-04
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-14

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