乡村自然发酵豆腐乳的真菌多样性研究

巫婷玉 徐芳玲 叶蔚歆 虞春华 马嫚 陈晔

巫婷玉,徐芳玲,叶蔚歆,等. 乡村自然发酵豆腐乳的真菌多样性研究[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):112−118. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120063
引用本文: 巫婷玉,徐芳玲,叶蔚歆,等. 乡村自然发酵豆腐乳的真菌多样性研究[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):112−118. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120063
WU Tingyu, XU Fangling, YE Weiyin, et al. Fungal Diversity of Natural Fermented Soybean Curd in Rural Areas[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 112−118. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120063
Citation: WU Tingyu, XU Fangling, YE Weiyin, et al. Fungal Diversity of Natural Fermented Soybean Curd in Rural Areas[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 112−118. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120063

乡村自然发酵豆腐乳的真菌多样性研究

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120063
基金项目: 江西省教育厅科技项目(181173)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    巫婷玉(1988−),女,硕士,讲师,研究方向:真菌分离及鉴定研究,E-mail:290813682@qq.com

    徐芳玲(1999−),女,本科,研究方向:生物科学专业,E-mail:990671216@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    陈晔(1966−),男,硕士,教授,研究方向:真菌资源及利用的研究,E-mail:chenyejjtc@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TS201.3

Fungal Diversity of Natural Fermented Soybean Curd in Rural Areas

  • 摘要: 为探究乡村豆腐乳内真菌的多样性,本研究以江西上饶市乡村自然发酵豆腐乳为对象,采用稀释平板培养方法,结合形态特征和LSU序列测序进行菌株鉴定、研究自然发酵豆腐乳真菌多样性。结果表明:从上饶市八个采样地24份豆腐乳样品中分离出277株菌株,鉴定出9个属26个种。根据分离频率,青霉属Penicillium(29.04%)、曲霉属Aspergillus(24.65%)、蓝状菌属Talaromyces (22.88%)、镰刀菌属Fusarium(10.57%)是鉴定出所有菌株中的优势属,不同来源地的真菌优势属具有明显差异;多样性指数(H)结果表明,铅山县石塘周边的多样性指数(H=1.92)是八个地区最高,菌群丰富度较高,而德兴市红山生活区的多样性指数(H=0.74)是最低,其菌群丰富度低。相似性指数(Cj)结果表明,铅山县石塘周边与广丰区小康城安利小区中豆腐乳的真菌的相似性系数为1.00,两地菌群相似程度较高,而铅山县紫溪乡文山村与玉山县樟树镇中豆腐乳的真菌相似程度极低,相似性系数为0.29。该研究结果将对提高豆腐乳的品质与安全性提供理论基础。
  • 图  1  基于LSU基因序列构建的豆腐乳菌株的系统发育树

    Figure  1.  Phylogenetic tree of soybean curd strain based on LSU gene sequence

    图  2  不同地区豆腐乳真菌的多样性指数

    Figure  2.  Diversity index of fermented soybean curd fungi in different regions

    表  1  每克样品中的菌落数

    Table  1.   Number of colonies per gram of sample

    采样地点每克样品中的菌落数/稀释浓度(CFU/g)
    10−310−410−5
    A4.90×1034.50×1042.70×105
    B6.40×1032.70×1046.40×105
    C2.71×1041.58×1051.33×106
    D2.70×1033.70×1043.70×105
    E2.80×1031.20×1041.1×105
    F3.30×1035.10×1043.40×105
    G3.50×1032.60×1045.30×105
    H4.00×1034.50×1044.30×105
    注:A:婺源县溪头乡呈川村;B:广丰区洋口镇;C:铅山县紫溪乡文山村;D:玉山县樟村镇;E:德兴市红山生活区;F:上饶县田墩镇;G:铅山县石塘周边;H:广丰区小康城安利小区;表2表3图2同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  上饶地区自制豆腐乳真菌菌群组成

    Table  2.   Composition of fermented soybean curd fungus in Shangrao area

    分类单元真菌分离不同地区
    ABCDEFGH
    总株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)株数分离频率(%)
    Penicillium brasilianum198.3652.2031.3262.6441.7610.44
    Penicillium pulvillorum2511.0073.0883.5241.7652.2010.44
    Penicillium simplicissimum10.4410.44
    Penicillium citrimum187.9262.6493.9610.4420.88
    Penicillium oxalicum10.4410.44
    Penicillium mariae-crucis10.4410.44
    Penicillium sp.10.4410.44
    小计(Penicillium6629.04
    Aspergillus niger2912.7752.20104.4152.2073.0820.88
    Aspergillus restrictus177.4831.3231.3262.6452.20
    Aspergillus flavus73.0852.2020.88
    Aspergillus novoparasiticus20.8820.88
    Aspergillus flavusvar10.4410.44
    小计(Aspergillus5624.65
    Talaromyces verruculosus125.2820.8841.7662.64
    Talaromyces albobiverticillius2310.1220.8852.2031.3252.2031.3252.20
    Talaromyces amestolkiae104.4052.2020.8831.32
    Talaromyces allahabadensis31.3231.32
    Talaromyces aculeatus10.4410.44
    Talaromyces purpureogenus31.3231.32
    小计(Talaromyces5222.88
    Fusarium flocciferum146.17104.4141.76
    Fusarium tricinctum20.8820.88
    Fusarium oxysporum83.5241.7641.76
    小计(Fusarium2410.57
    Bionectria sp.167.0420.8831.3241.7631.3241.76
    Clonstachys rosea73.0831.3210.4410.4420.88
    Fungal sp.31.3231.32
    Trematosphaeria biappendiculate20.8820.88
    Meyerozyma guilliermondii10.4410.44
    总计2271003013.223314.543515.423414.98104.413414.983314.54187.93
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同地区豆腐乳真菌的相似性指数

    Table  3.   Similarity index of soybean curd fungi in different regions

    采样地ABCDEFGH
    A1.000.570.430.360.500.570.710.83
    B1.000.500.430.600.800.830.83
    C1.000.290.750.600.430.43
    D1.000.330.500.570.57
    E1.000.750.500.50
    F1.000.670.67
    G1.001.00
    H1.00
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-14

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