植物多酚降血糖机制的研究进展

黄修晴 初众 房一明 姜天宇 董宏达 王瑞雪 张筠

黄修晴,初众,房一明,等. 植物多酚降血糖机制的研究进展[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):461−469. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090078
引用本文: 黄修晴,初众,房一明,等. 植物多酚降血糖机制的研究进展[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(18):461−469. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090078
HUANG Xiuqing, CHU Zhong, FANG Yiming, et al. Research Progress on Hypoglycemic Mechanism of Plant Polyphenols[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 461−469. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090078
Citation: HUANG Xiuqing, CHU Zhong, FANG Yiming, et al. Research Progress on Hypoglycemic Mechanism of Plant Polyphenols[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(18): 461−469. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090078

植物多酚降血糖机制的研究进展

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090078
基金项目: 黑龙江东方学院项目(HDFHX202005);农业农村部香辛饮料作物遗传资源利用重点实验室、海南省香料饮料作物工程技术研究中心开放课题(2019xys003);黑龙江东方学院科研创新团队建设项目(HDFKYTD202104)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄修晴(1996−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品质量与安全,E-mail:529731264@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    张筠(1976−),女,博士,教授,研究方向:食品功能性,E-mail:24343886@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: TS201.2

Research Progress on Hypoglycemic Mechanism of Plant Polyphenols

  • 摘要: 多酚类化合物是植物的次生代谢产物,广泛存在于自然界中,包括黄酮类化合物、单宁、绿原酸等。研究表明,经常摄入富含多酚类化合物的蔬菜、水果和饮料可以减缓心脑血管疾病、糖尿病、肥胖等慢性代谢疾病甚至癌症的发生和发展。本文从植物多酚可以通过促进胰岛素合成与分泌、抑制葡萄糖转运、调节肠道菌群等方面对血糖起调节作用进行论述,以期为植物多酚降血糖功能提供理论依据。
  • 图  1  不同植物多酚降血糖机制示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of hypoglycemic mechanism of polyphenols from different plants

    表  1  常见酚类化合物来源、结构及生物活性

    Table  1.   Source, structure and biological activity of common phenolic compounds

    种类来源多酚类型基本结构生物活性参考文献
    酚酸类咖啡、茶、可可、核桃、浆果等阿魏酸、咖啡酸、香豆酸、对羟基苯甲酸和对羟基肉桂酸等抗炎、抗氧化、抗菌、抗病毒、抗寄生虫、提高胰岛素敏感性[15-17]
    黄酮类欧芹、开心果、橄榄油、柑橘汁等芹菜素、香叶木甙、木犀草素、黄芩素、白杨素等抗氧化、抗炎、抗菌抗病毒、调节糖脂代谢[18-20]
    异黄酮类大豆、花生、扁豆等大豆苷元、染料木苷、大豆黄素等降低胆固醇、抗糖尿病、抗肥胖、雌激素活性[21-23]
    黄酮醇类柑橘类水果、苹果、香料、浆果等槲皮素、槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(芦丁)、鼠李素异鼠李素、山奈酚等抗炎、抗氧化、抗病毒、抗菌[24-26]
    原花青素类葡萄酒、可可、茶叶、坚果、热带水果等缩合单宁、原花青素、儿茶素、表儿茶素、表没食子儿茶素、没食子酸酯等抗炎、抗氧化、抗癌、抑菌、抗病毒[27-29]
    花青素类葡萄、葡萄酒、浆果、黑豆矢车菊色素、飞燕草色素、锦葵色素、天竺葵素、芍药色素、牵牛花色素等抗糖尿病、保护神经、抗过敏、抗炎、抗氧化、抑菌[30-32]
    单宁类坚果、葡萄、石榴等水解单宁抗氧化、抗癌、雌激素活性[33-35]
    芪类葡萄酒、花生、浆果等白藜芦醇抗氧化、抗炎、保护心血管、抗癌、抗肥胖[36-37]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  植物多酚调节血糖的机制

    Table  2.   Mechanism of plant polyphenols regulating blood sugar

    多酚类型降糖模型健康变化作用机制参考文献
    绿茶多酚db/db小鼠降低空腹血糖和肠系膜脂肪,同时增加血清胰岛素水平通过调节肠道菌群丰度,显著改变了肠道内厚壁菌门和拟杆菌门的丰度[69]
    葡萄多酚C57BL/6J小鼠降低高脂饮食引起的肠道活性氧水平,减轻肠道菌群失调引起的代谢综合征通过促进益生菌的生长,如艾克曼菌[70]
    柑橘汁多酚成年女性降低了体内低密度脂蛋白-胆固醇,提高了葡萄糖和胰岛素敏感性通过调节人体肠道菌群组成和产生短链脂肪酸,发挥类似益生元的活性[71]
    苹果多酚STZ糖尿病小鼠给药组糖尿病小鼠胰岛数量明显增加,同糖尿病模型对照组小鼠比较,胰岛内细胞数量有所增加,核固缩和胞浆空泡化减轻GLP-1受体途径对胰岛β细胞的保护作用机制,同时还对RIN-m5F胰岛β细胞具有促增值、促分泌作用[72]
    沙棘叶多酚体外酶作用体外抗氧化能力随提取物浓度增加加大,同时对胰α-淀粉酶的抑制作用呈线性通过抑制自由基通路、脂质抗氧化,发挥降血糖作用[73]
    黄芩苷元和
    白杨黄素
    STZ糖尿病小鼠降低空腹血糖水平和空腹胰岛素水平提高PPARy下游蛋白胰岛素受体底物的磷酸化水平和葡萄糖转运蛋白的表达量来增加葡萄糖吸收、增加胰岛素的敏感性[74]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-02
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-14

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