挥发性香气成分和非挥发性滋味成分是食用菌品质的重要指标,为探究平菇、香菇、双孢蘑菇、金针菇和杏鲍菇等5种食用菌鲜品中的风味成分,采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)、高效液相色谱(HPLC)等方法对5种食用菌鲜品中的风味物质进行分析,通过相对气味活度值(Relative odor activity value,ROAV)研究了不同组分对整体风味的贡献,并测定了5种食用菌的总游离氨基酸和5'-核苷酸的含量。结果显示:5种食用菌中共鉴定出35种挥发性化合物,包括醛类5种、酮类5种、醇类9种、烷烃类8种、杂环和硫化物6种、酯类1种和含氮化合物1种;其中共有成分8种,分别为苯甲醛、3-辛酮、1-辛烯-3-酮、3-辛醇、2-乙基己醇、5-甲基-2-乙酰基呋喃、2-戊基呋喃和甲氧基苯肟。平菇鲜品中主体挥发性香气成分(ROAV≥1)为1-辛烯-3-酮、1-辛烯-3-醇和3-辛酮;香菇鲜品中主体挥发性香气成分为二甲基二硫醚、二甲基三硫醚、1-辛烯-3-酮和甲硫醇;双孢蘑菇和金针菇鲜品中主体挥发性香气成分为1-辛烯-3-酮、3-辛酮和3-辛醇;而杏鲍菇鲜品中的主体挥发性香气成分是1-辛烯-3-酮和1-辛烯-3-醇。5种食用菌中总游离氨基酸含量为2.72~3.65 mg/g,总呈味核苷酸含量为154.40~1013.60 μg/g,不同品种间总游离氨基酸和呈味核苷酸含量差别较大。本研究有助于深入了解食用菌风味特征,对食用菌品种的改良、定向培育及食用菌的加工应用具有指导作用。
The volatile and non-volatile flavor composition are important indicators to evaluate the quality of mushroom. In order to explore the composition and relative content of flavor compounds in 5 fresh mushrooms, the flavor components were investigated and classified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the contribution of different components to the whole volatile was studied by the relative odor activity value (ROAV). The results showed that 35 volatile compounds were identified in 5 fresh mushrooms, including 5 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 9 alcohols, 8 alkanes, 6 heterocycles and sulfides, 1 esters and 1 nitrogen-containing compounds. Among the obtained compounds, 8 volatile ingredients including benzaldehyde, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran and methoxy-phenyl-oxime were detected in all the species. The key volatile aroma components of Pleurotus ostreatus were 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone, and those of Lentinus edodes were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one and methanethiol. 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanone and 3-octanol were the key volatile aroma components of Agaricus bisporus and Flammulina velutipes while 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol were the key volatile aroma components of Pleurotus eryngii. The content of total free amino acid in 5 fresh mushrooms was 2.72~3.65 mg/g, the content of flavor 5'-nucleotides was 154.40~1013.60 μg/g and the contents of which were significantly difference.This study helped to understand the flavor characteristics of edible mushroom and provide guidance for breed improvement, directive breeding and the processing of edible mushroom.