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中国精品科技期刊2020

红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物多样性与理化指标、挥发性风味的相关性分析

谷晓东 李素萍 杨柳青 刘怡琳 马艳莉 陈志周 王印壮 刘旭

谷晓东,李素萍,杨柳青,等. 红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物多样性与理化指标、挥发性风味的相关性分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(23):133−143. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020255
引用本文: 谷晓东,李素萍,杨柳青,等. 红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物多样性与理化指标、挥发性风味的相关性分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(23):133−143. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020255
GU Xiaodong, LI Suping, YANG Liuqing, et al. Correlation Analysis between Microbial Diversity and Physicochemical Indexes, Volatile Flavor during the Fermentation of Red Millet Huangjiu[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(23): 133−143. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020255
Citation: GU Xiaodong, LI Suping, YANG Liuqing, et al. Correlation Analysis between Microbial Diversity and Physicochemical Indexes, Volatile Flavor during the Fermentation of Red Millet Huangjiu[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(23): 133−143. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020255

红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物多样性与理化指标、挥发性风味的相关性分析

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020255
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(31601462);南阳市科技重大专项(2019ZDZX10);河南省工业微生物资源与发酵技术重点实验室开放课题(HIMFT20190307、HIMFT20190308);河南省高等学校青年骨干培养计划(2020GGJS226)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    谷晓东(1996−),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品工程,E-mail:1921261906@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    马艳莉(1982−),女,博士,教授,研究方向:食品营养与安全,E-mail:myl_dz@sina.com

    陈志周(1968−),男,博士,教授,研究方向:食品包装材料与技术,E-mail:chenzhizhou2003@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TS261.1

Correlation Analysis between Microbial Diversity and Physicochemical Indexes, Volatile Flavor during the Fermentation of Red Millet Huangjiu

  • 摘要: 为探究红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物群落与理化指标、挥发性风味之间的相关性,本研究通过微生物高通量测序技术、理化指标检测及气相色谱-质谱技术等对黄酒样品进行测定并用SPSS软件进行相关性分析。结果显示随着发酵的进行,还原糖含量在初期急剧下降后逐渐稳定,酒精度变化与之相反;总酸含量先快速增加后减少再增加,pH较为稳定;氨基态氮含量先波动增加后急剧上升,可溶性固形物含量先剧烈下降后趋于稳定。发酵过程中10次取样(1~7、10、20、30 d)共检测出14个细菌门和228个细菌属;7个真菌门和108个真菌属。在属水平细菌群落可聚类为3类,真菌群落可聚类为5类。细菌属水平与总酸显著正相关(P<0.05),与还原糖显著负相关(P<0.05),真菌属水平与氨基态氮显著正相关(P<0.05)。2,3-丁二醇以及乳酸乙酯与大部分菌属显著正相关(P<0.05)。Klebsiella与辛酸乙酯显著负相关(P<0.05);Lactococcus与乙醇、2-丁醇、异丁醇、苯乙醇和棕榈酸乙酯呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。Monascus与乳酸乙酯显著负相关(P<0.05);Apiotrichum与2-丁醇、异丁醇和异戊醇显著负相关(P<0.05)。以上结果表明,红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物多样性有显著性变化,并与其理化指标及风味变化具有一定相关性;本研究为后续红谷黄酒品质的提升与发展提供了理论参考。
  • 图  1  发酵过程中主要细菌门和主要细菌属分布

    Figure  1.  Changes in relative abundance of major bacterial phylum and major bacterial genus during fermentation

    注:a:门,b:属,图3同;JZ1~JZ7、JZ8、JZ9、JZ10分别表示发酵1~7、10、20、30 d取样,图2~图4同。

    图  2  细菌属群落结构相似性分析

    Figure  2.  Community structure similarity analysis of bacterial genera

    注:a:非度量多维尺度分析图,b:基于Beta多样性距离的样品层级聚类树;图4同。

    图  3  发酵过程中主要真菌门和主要真菌属的分布

    Figure  3.  Changes in relative abundance of major fungi phylum and major fungi genus during fermentation

    图  4  真菌属群落结构相似性分析

    Figure  4.  Community structure similarity analysis of fungi genera

    图  5  红谷黄酒发酵过程中微生物群落与挥发性物质相关性热图

    Figure  5.  Heatmap of correlation between microbial community and volatile substances during fermentation of red millet Huangjiu

    表  1  发酵过程中红谷黄酒理化指标

    Table  1.   Physiochemical indexes of red millet Huangjiu during fermentation

    取样时间(d)总糖(g/L)还原糖(g/L)酒精度(%vol)总酸(g/L)pH氨基态氮(g/L)可溶性固形物(%)
    149.37±0.35a1.30±0.07j3.54±0.06g3.79±0.01a0.28±0.01h22.02±0.03a
    227.59±0.29b3.73±0.06i5.69±0.07f3.73±0.01a0.26±0.01g15.54±0.05b
    321.53±0.14c9.28±0.11h6.84±0.11e3.68±0.01a0.50±0.03f10.63±0.12h
    417.78±0.35d10.98±0.02g7.61±0.09b3.67±0.01a0.59±0.03d10.36±0.02j
    515.26±0.06e11.81±0.03f7.22±0.10cd3.66±0.01a0.50±0.04f10.59±0.03i
    612.50±0.27f12.06±0.06e7.18±0.12d3.73±0.01a0.52±0.01e11.03±0.05f
    712.36±0.32g14.73±0.03c7.22±0.06cd3.70±0.01a0.59±0.02d11.14±0.08e
    109.48±0.06h15.23±0.02b7.37±0.07c3.70±0.01a0.67±0.03c10.78±0.04g
    206.32±0.09i15.55±0.06a7.56±0.08b3.69±0.01a0.79±0.03b11.18±0.06d
    309.18±0.015.93±0.07j14.63±0.04d7.80±0.06a3.66±0.01a1.06±0.04a12.25±0.13c
    注:同一列中的不同字母根据Duncan测验(P<0.05)有显著差异。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  红谷黄酒发酵过程中的挥发性风味物质含量

    Table  2.   Contents of volatile flavor compounds in the fermentation process of red millet Huangjiu

    序号含量(μg/L)样品
    1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d10 d20 d30 d
    1乙醇52134.42±
    3377.21e
    149915.88±
    7825.52d
    373055.94±
    2731.25c
    440994.14±
    33771.12b
    474572.74±
    35896.78b
    484599.04±
    36217.20b
    592017.14±
    43982.99a
    611814.41±
    4623.47a
    624836.10±
    46122.93a
    587669.00±
    40266.84a
    22-丁醇1136.16±
    112.90f
    2710.44±
    169.74e
    4769.59±
    217.92d
    5723.59±
    179.32c
    6101.27±
    432.55bc
    6564.99±
    462.11b
    6590.94±
    453.20b
    7687.23±
    538.84a
    7409.12±
    501.22a
    6598.43±
    482.97b
    3异丁醇282.92±
    14.16e
    3726.78±
    45.21d
    10284.37±
    714.25c
    11835.58±
    861.27abc
    11969.42±
    877.99abc
    12525.91±
    2128.44ab
    12699.31±
    924.20ab
    13491.10±
    823.47a
    12715.77±
    1045.13ab
    11000.01±
    556.07bc
    4异戊醇627.21±
    43.97d
    9394.46±
    598.51c
    26445.11±
    1802.96b
    29888.60±
    1945.33a
    30393.38±
    2001.87a
    31323.60±
    2511.32a
    32188.63±
    2311.46a
    32652.64±
    2395.74a
    30159.71±
    2022.47a
    25630.71±
    1731.82b
    52,3-丁二醇2795.11±
    155.29cd
    5589.75±
    472.46b
    nd2367.33±
    152.07d
    nd2747.25±
    161.26cd
    ndnd3009.86±
    195.45c
    11008.34±
    812.49a
    6苯乙醇nd210.12±
    15.20e
    618.44±
    44.75d
    749.98±
    51.32c
    896.08±
    60.83b
    766.61±
    52.77c
    1149.51±
    84.58a
    790.86±
    61.74c
    826.64±
    63.99bc
    768.82±
    51.66c
    7(2R,3R)-(-)
    -2,3-丁二醇
    ndnd14682.21±
    1221.45b
    11245.10±
    954.79c
    13002.01±
    1106.94bc
    12778.78±
    942.32bc
    33132.36±
    2236.14a
    2329.19±
    156.89d
    12859.08±
    912.15bc
    1128.39±
    12.96d
    8乙酸乙酯390.71±
    21.25e
    5053.39±
    402.14d
    22166.20±
    1499.96c
    31087.09±
    1976.23b
    34667.14±
    2120.59b
    32015.80±
    2249.78b
    ndndnd52828.30±
    4135.98a
    9正己酸乙酯68.99±
    3.99f
    346.10±
    20.11e
    726.95±
    32.54c
    816.86±
    55.96bc
    808.27±
    43.52bc
    859.83±
    51.23b
    585.72±
    47.93d
    997.91±
    109.26a
    574.87±
    61.99d
    983.36±
    71.84a
    10辛酸乙酯30.48±
    2.48g
    178.43±
    9.56f
    443.65±
    34.08cd
    505.77±
    39.58c
    471.51±
    32.47cd
    460.13±
    31.51cd
    414.02±
    29.88de
    786.76±
    56.29b
    369.50±
    25.33e
    947.07±
    65.37a
    11癸酸乙酯nd73.11±
    8.16b
    183.41±
    20.48b
    214.19±
    13.94b
    213.28±
    17.89b
    191.51±
    23.47b
    203.71±
    14.75b
    9390.10±
    772.18a
    164.66±
    12.43b
    216.88±
    11.76b
    12丁酸乙酯nd2742.13±
    161.57c
    ndnd7769.50±
    522.79b
    8816.40±
    625.15ab
    7893.18±
    586.34b
    9570.82±
    756.13a
    ndnd
    13乙酸异戊酯nd160.67±
    11.76f
    682.85±
    52.66d
    870.78±
    64.95bc
    935.24±
    65.19ab
    1021.41±
    41.05a
    818.81±
    60.92c
    955.75±
    82.14ab
    605.41±
    44.68d
    356.37±
    27.17e
    14棕榈酸乙酯ndnd1931.92±
    141.78ef
    2858.62±
    189.47bc
    2263.65±
    159.74de
    1733.76±
    164.01f
    2555.16±
    170.94cd
    5310.44±
    414.03a
    3220.08±
    244.88b
    3020.13±
    181.45b
    15乳酸乙酯ndndndnd835.87±
    55.21d
    nd1420.52±
    109.65c
    1398.43±
    111.99c
    2344.32±
    171.20b
    6522.39±
    461.68a
    16亚油酸乙酯ndndndnd900.37±
    72.50cd
    1037.08±
    54.39b
    981.03±
    79.99bc
    878.05±
    66.20cd
    1264.71±
    87.04a
    801.17±
    53.19d
    17乙酸146.03±
    10.42f
    1787.13±
    83.11e
    3974.75±
    122.89d
    4153.82±
    311.55d
    5194.03±
    371.54c
    4431.39±
    323.98d
    7915.91±
    581.46a
    5627.81±
    438.85bc
    5407.60±
    415.57bc
    5869.98±
    318.94b
    18丁酸nd118.36±
    10.35c
    174.74±
    30.21b
    170.91±
    12.87b
    ndnd268.02±
    17.69a
    270.49±
    18.25a
    161.97±
    9.24b
    nd
    19乙醛1364.63±
    154.58e
    2397.31±
    157.69e
    7289.98±
    500.00d
    7461.452±
    460.00d
    7770.20±
    522.22d
    9250.33±
    601.12c
    11057.09±
    1001.12b
    16458.75±
    1200.05a
    16669.98±
    1320.56a
    6572.29±
    443.21d
    注: nd表示没有检测到;同一行中的不同字母根据Duncan测验(P<0.05)有显著差异。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  发酵过程中细菌和真菌多样性指数表

    Table  3.   Table of bacteria and fungi diversity indexes during fermentation

    取样时间(d)序列数OTU数Shannon指数ACE指数Chao 1指数覆盖率(%)
    细菌真菌细菌真菌细菌真菌细菌真菌细菌真菌细菌真菌
    17936679394180981.651.65252.34164.75234.03132.0099.9299.98
    27968778917282803.071.28316.1696.59323.7899.4399.9499.98
    37936379016182822.061.50320.1997.55273.2989.5099.9199.99
    47943178854306764.721.31348.57123.28363.4294.2099.9099.98
    57939378917333814.551.38372.68102.29395.2292.0099.9099.99
    67949679363257882.541.35319.24113.88317.6197.4399.9199.98
    77945879037225882.331.53284.51123.51275.73101.6099.9199.98
    107949879231300854.351.30331.40104.22328.7592.8699.9499.99
    2080053787693411073.741.96369.03185.14384.13149.0099.9499.97
    3079533793672801462.443.69318.96220.62321.62176.0099.9399.98
    不重复的OTU总个数438246
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  发酵过程中理化指标与微生物多样性的相关性

    Table  4.   Correlation coefficients between physicochemical indicators and microbial diversity during fermentation

    指标酒精度还原糖总酸pH可溶性固形物氨基态氮
    细菌0.558−0.664*0.644*−0.600−0.5360.499
    真菌0.191−0.1240.022−0.0350.2190.643*
    注:*表示显著相关(P<0.05)。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-10-20
  • 刊出日期:  2022-11-23

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