22种不同来源信阳毛尖茶的分类比较

张洁 陈思敏 任小盈 马存强 马冰凇 王子浩

张洁,陈思敏,任小盈,等. 22种不同来源信阳毛尖茶的分类比较[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(23):34−40. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020071
引用本文: 张洁,陈思敏,任小盈,等. 22种不同来源信阳毛尖茶的分类比较[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(23):34−40. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020071
ZHANG Jie, CHEN Simin, REN Xiaoying, et al. Classification and Comparative Analysis of 22 Xinyang Maojian Teas with Various Origins[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(23): 34−40. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020071
Citation: ZHANG Jie, CHEN Simin, REN Xiaoying, et al. Classification and Comparative Analysis of 22 Xinyang Maojian Teas with Various Origins[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(23): 34−40. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020071

22种不同来源信阳毛尖茶的分类比较

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020071
基金项目: 信阳农林学院高水平科研孵化器建设基金资助项目(FCL202010);国家自然科学基金(31960617)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张洁(1982−),女,硕士,讲师,研究方向:茶叶资源开发与经营管理,E-mail:583215238@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    马存强(1988−),男,硕士,讲师,研究方向:茶叶微生物发酵与理化成分分析,E-mail: macunqiang1208@aliyun.com

  • 中图分类号: TS272.5

Classification and Comparative Analysis of 22 Xinyang Maojian Teas with Various Origins

  • 摘要: 为了探究采制时节、产地、等级等因素对信阳毛尖茶品质成分的影响,本文采用高效液相色谱等方法对22个不同来源的信阳毛尖茶中儿茶素、黄酮类、酚酸类、嘌呤碱等品质成分进行测定。主成分分析、聚类分析和偏最小乘法-判别分析显示采制时节是影响信阳毛尖品质成分的主要因素,不同来源信阳毛尖基本可按照采制时节分为明前、雨前和春尾。单因素方差分析显示不同采制时节信阳毛尖茶在8种儿茶素、5种黄酮类、2种嘌呤碱以及没食子酸、游离氨基酸等品质成分上存在极显著差异(P<0.01):明前茶中的游离氨基酸总量和(+)-儿茶素(C)含量最高、而(+)-没食子儿茶素(GC)、(-)-表没食子儿茶素(EGC)、(-)-表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)、(-)-表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、没食子酸、芦丁、杨梅素、槲皮素、可可碱含量最低,与雨前茶和春尾茶存在显著(P<0.05)或极显著差异(P<0.01)。不同产地和等级之间C、ECG、(-)-表没食子儿茶素(EGC)等儿茶素;芦丁、花旗松素、杨梅素等黄酮类;以及可可碱、茶碱等嘌呤碱含量存在显著(P<0.05)或极显著差异(P<0.01)。相对而言,四望山毛尖茶中非酯型儿茶素含量较高,而黄酮总量较低;芽头中游离氨基酸和C含量最高,而EGC和杨梅素含量最低,这对信阳毛尖采制时节的识别有一定影响。本文首次基于茶叶中品质成分对不同来源的信阳毛尖进行了分类比较,为明前茶的识别提供了科学依据。
  • 图  1  不同来源信阳毛尖茶的主成分分析(A)、层次聚类分析(B)和偏最小二乘法判别分析(C)

    Figure  1.  PCA (A), HCA (B) and PLS-DA (C) for Xinyang Maojian teas from various origins

    图  2  天云山和四望山毛尖茶中的品质成分差异

    Figure  2.  Differences of quality components in teas between Mount Tianyun and Siwang

    注:*表示差异显著,P<0.05;**表示差异极显著,P<0.01;图3同。

    图  3  不同档次信阳毛尖茶主要品质成分含量对比

    Figure  3.  Comparisons of the main quality components in Xinyang Maojian tea among different grades

    表  1  22款信阳毛尖茶信息及分组

    Table  1.   Information of 22 Xinyang Maojian tea samples and their grouping

    编号产地规格采制时节编号产地规格采制时节
    XYMJT-1天云山芽头明前XYMJT-12天云山楼头雨前
    XYMJT-2天云山芽头明前XYMJT-13四望山次芽雨前
    XYMJT-3天云山次芽明前XYMJT-14四望山次芽雨前
    XYMJT-4天云山次芽明前XYMJT-15天云山次芽春尾
    XYMJT-5四望山芽头明前XYMJT-16天云山次芽春尾
    XYMJT-6四望山芽头明前XYMJT-17四望山芽头春尾
    XYMJT-7四望山楼头明前XYMJT-18四望山芽头春尾
    XYMJT-8四望山楼头明前XYMJT-19四望山次芽春尾
    XYMJT-9天云山芽头雨前XYMJT-20四望山次芽春尾
    XYMJT-10天云山芽头雨前XYMJT-21四望山楼头春尾
    XYMJT-11天云山楼头雨前XYMJT-22四望山楼头春尾
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  HPLC洗脱程序

    Table  2.   Elution program of HPLC

    时间(min)A相(%)B相(%)流速(mL/min)
    090100.8
    1055450.8
    2235650.8
    25.901000.8
    2901000.8
    3090100.8
    3690100.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  22个茶样中儿茶素、黄酮类、酚酸类、嘌呤碱等主要品质成分含量

    Table  3.   Contents of catechins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, purine alkaloids and other main quality components in 22 tea samples

    编号XYMJT-1XYMJT-2XYMJT-3XYMJT-4XYMJT-5XYMJT-6XYMJT-7XYMJT-8XYMJT-9XYMJT-10XYMJT-11
    茶多酚(%)25.56±1.3627.54±1.3329.53±0.7727.16±0.3433.01±0.3333.19±0.3529.72±0.5630.21±0.3728.88±0.9133.53±1.4334.04±1.64
    游离氨基酸(mg/g)40.89±2.1543.29±2.6638.71±1.8837.89±1.6240.48±0.8941.63±1.3437.78±1.5536.95±1.9741.79±2.0540.70±1.4736.65±1.97
    可溶性糖(mg/g)38.56±1.7041.2±0.6243.27±2.239.56±1.837.03±2.0837.66±0.6639.45±2.5041.12±1.4038.28±0.3737.36±2.9240.43±1.66
    C(mg/g)17.79±2.4720.63±4.3824.71±1.1322.75±2.2432.95±0.2930.67±0.2423.39±0.5820.27±0.5124.04±0.4721.40±0.5819.19±0.04
    EC(mg/g)3.63±0.344.03±0.693.40±0.203.06±0.393.22±0.023.33±0.006.22±0.035.37±0.174.59±0.134.52±0.095.78±0.26
    GC(mg/g)13.80±0.7614.68±1.1413.91±0.6212.81±1.2518.29±0.0918.45±0.0118.26±0.1616.06±0.3321.04±0.8320.04±0.4319.72±0.20
    EGC(mg/g)6.29±0.286.62±0.636.86±0.466.05±0.926.22±0.046.31±0.0311.31±0.4810.77±0.0010.09±0.509.44±0.2913.45±0.01
    CG(mg/g)0.19±0.020.22±0.040.24±0.020.23±0.040.23±0.020.23±0.010.19±0.060.19±0.030.25±0.020.20±0.060.22±0.00
    ECG(mg/g)17.52±0.9518.59±1.4521.06±0.9819.33±1.9920.75±0.1521.12±0.1222.39±0.1919.39±0.1823.13±0.2023.36±0.2622.04±0.19
    GCG(mg/g)1.14±0.091.24±0.131.28±0.081.15±0.151.65±0.021.72±0.011.68±0.001.49±0.041.26±0.111.38±0.011.42±0.01
    EGCG(mg/g)50.64±3.1554.51±4.7055.77±2.9350.64±5.8851.20±0.5051.85±0.4258.29±0.5250.41±0.6166.07±0.6562.98±0.1468.42±0.76
    没食子酸(mg/g)4.53±0.445.37±0.107.37±0.076.33±0.907.84±0.027.74±0.016.85±0.055.63±0.027.92±0.037.33±0.066.97±0.04
    鞣花酸(mg/g)0.55±0.010.67±0.030.71±0.020.63±0.070.93±0.030.85±0.020.49±0.170.53±0.010.59±0.320.49±0.310.94±0.02
    GG(mg/g)1.96±0.192.12±0.152.58±0.192.38±0.111.76±0.092.19±0.082.11±0.382.26±0.071.85±0.102.10±0.372.28±0.12
    芦丁(mg/g)2.91±0.023.44±0.121.89±0.011.73±0.142.34±0.192.43±0.042.39±0.004.26±0.004.38±1.303.51±0.526.76±0.03
    花旗松素(mg/g)0.18±0.000.25±0.050.27±0.010.24±0.030.32±0.010.31±0.010.18±0.060.22±0.000.29±0.010.32±0.020.28±0.00
    木犀草素(mg/g)0.021±0.0000.022±0.0010.023±0.0000.025±0.0020.018±0.0000.012±0.0010.021±0.0000.015±0.0000.020±0.0000.012±0.0060.018±0.002
    槲皮素(mg/g)未检出未检出未检出未检出0.015±0.0000.015±0.0000.022±0.0000.017±0.0000.028±0.0000.025±0.000未检出
    山奈酚(mg/g)0.021±0.0010.023±0.0000.024±0.0010.024±0.0020.027±0.0000.027±0.0000.026±0.0010.020±0.0000.030±0.0010.026±0.0020.031±0.001
    杨梅素(mg/g)0.16±0.000.19±0.010.13±0.000.12±0.010.007±0.0010.008±0.0010.25±0.000.21±0.000.14±0.130.22±0.010.37±0.00
    咖啡碱(mg/g)34.49±1.7336.48±2.5943.38±0.3139.37±3.4942.01±0.1742.60±0.0638.65±0.0641.08±0.1341.08±0.1338.24±0.3641.38±0.27
    可可碱(mg/g)1.46±0.081.38±0.101.65±0.091.59±0.121.86±0.201.85±0.121.86±0.121.66±0.041.71±0.121.64±0.081.57±0.10
    茶碱(mg/g)0.22±0.030.17±0.140.29±0.010.24±0.040.46±0.020.43±0.000.37±0.010.35±0.010.26±0.190.61±0.260.83±0.00
    编号XYMJT-12XYMJT-13XYMJT-14XYMJT-15XYMJT-16XYMJT-17XYMJT-18XYMJT-19XYMJT-20XYMJT-21XYMJT-22
    茶多酚 (%)33.89±1.6032.58±0.7632.59±0.9935.35±0.3734.37±0.7834.52±0.7634.99±0.5031.60±0.2935.70±0.0433.66±0.1435.16±1.07
    游离氨基酸(mg/g)36.03±1.6138.37±3.4036.70±1.9137.06±1.6334.95±1.8035.73±3.3533.90±2.9236.16±1.6835.87±1.1631.27±1.3031.19±0.84
    可溶性糖(mg/g)40.30±3.3939.23±3.3742.70±2.4639.25±1.6742.47±3.0145.60±2.1540.99±2.4743.13±3.1638.93±1.8444.22±3.4541.59±1.96
    C (mg/g)20.07±0.3229.09±3.3422.73±1.4016.64±0.2219.70±0.2622.59±0.2521.33±0.3321.52±0.1518.49±0.4215.28±0.0417.33±0.46
    EC(mg/g)5.71±0.024.70±0.224.19±0.254.37±0.244.39±0.024.99±0.035.41±0.094.97±0.005.38±0.192.99±0.013.46±0.10
    GC(mg/g)18.35±0.6021.70±0.1118.70±0.6523.51±0.1526.27±0.1424.69±0.1025.99±0.2816.41±0.0118.91±0.5022.39±0.0324.39±0.44
    EGC(mg/g)13.09±0.148.73±0.678.04±0.159.48±0.0711.24±0.0411.08±0.0711.76±0.1510.88±0.4511.61±0.197.49±0.037.80±0.08
    CG(mg/g)0.22±0.000.11±0.110.12±0.000.2±0.0170.20±0.010.34±0.020.35±0.020.25±0.010.27±0.010.17±0.020.28±0.03
    ECG(mg/g)21.07±0.1824.98±0.2321.62±0.7621.82±0.2323.73±0.2523.97±0.2125.44±0.3519.23±0.1023.26±0.2121.47±0.0023.67±0.49
    GCG(mg/g)1.32±0.001.22±0.011.04±0.041.78±0.021.94±0.031.61±0.031.72±0.041.34±0.011.60±0.041.07±0.011.14±0.02
    EGCG(mg/g)65.83±0.7066.89±0.9357.72±2.1665.25±0.8471.95±0.9171.47±0.8174.47±0.9958.85±0.4669.53±0.8561.58±0.1668.92±1.64
    没食子酸(mg/g)6.93±0.037.95±0.076.86±0.246.09±0.057.44±0.057.74±0.047.93±0.056.92±0.006.95±0.048.17±0.029.07±0.20
    鞣花酸(mg/g)0.92±0.010.50±0.310.45±0.280.67±0.010.78±0.020.71±0.020.67±0.020.72±0.030.72±0.070.47±0.010.51±0.01
    GG(mg/g)2.45±0.142.09±0.361.99±0.222.12±0.112.26±0.071.89±0.152.26±0.071.89±0.122.25±0.072.22±0.162.35±0.09
    芦丁(mg/g)5.90±0.122.34±0.642.11±0.503.29±0.043.76±0.243.82±0.063.88±0.113.53±0.294.82±0.991.88±0.022.11±0.05
    花旗松素(mg/g)0.27±0.000.22±0.060.24±0.010.34±0.000.36±0.000.19±0.000.16±0.040.25±0.000.24±0.020.08±0.000.023±0.03
    木犀草素(mg/g)0.016±0.0020.018±0.0020.014±0.0040.006±0.0000.006±0.0010.006±0.0000.007±0.0000.012±0.0000.011±0.0030.017±0.0000.008±0.002
    槲皮素(mg/g)未检出0.019±0.0030.015±0.0030.028±0.0010.009±0.0000.023±0.0010.026±0.0010.023±0.0000.027±0.0000.018±0.0000.019±0.001
    山奈酚(mg/g)0.029±0.0000.021±0.0070.023±0.0010.005±0.0000.018±0.0130.025±0.000.028±0.0010.020±0.0010.022±0.0020.023±0.0070.019±0.013
    杨梅素(mg/g)0.35±0.000.18±0.020.18±0.000.11±0.100.12±0.100.10±0.000.10±0.100.22±0.010.27±0.020.13±0.000.15±0.01
    咖啡碱(mg/g)39.37±0.0844.59±0.1638.37±1.3742.78±0.2645.44±0.2441.79±0.1743.96±0.4735.65±0.0042.93±0.1840.51±0.1245.16±1.01
    可可碱(mg/g)1.69±0.121.85±0.121.82±0.161.86±0.201.75±0.121.83±0.161.86±0.201.83±0.101.83±0.161.90±0.151.85±0.12
    茶碱(mg/g)0.83±0.010.79±0.070.24±0.180.28±0.010.35±0.000.49±0.010.45±0.010.09±0.000.07±0.010.57±0.010.44±0.03
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  明前、雨前和春尾信阳毛尖茶的主要品质成分含量和差异

    Table  4.   Contents and differences of main quality components in Xinyang Maojian teas among Mingqian, Yuqian and Chunwei

    成分明前(n=8×3)雨前(n=6×3)春尾(n=8×3)
    茶多酚(%)29.49±2.67Bc32.59±2.10Ab34.42±1.34Aa
    游离氨基酸总量(mg/g)39.70±2.60Aa38.42±2.85Aa34.51±2.71Bb
    可溶性糖总量(mg/g)39.73±2.45Ab39.72±2.80Ab42.02±3.06Aa
    儿茶素总量(mg/g)126.04±11.59Bb146.73±7.92Aa149.00±12.19Aa
    非酯型儿茶素总量(mg/g)51.51±7.55Bb58.09±3.81Aa56.57±5.58ABa
    酯型儿茶素总量(mg/g)74.53±5.33Bb88.64±4.50Aa92.43±7.20Aa
    黄酮类总量(mg/g)3.11±0.83Bb4.73±1.96Aa3.81±1.03ABab
    C(mg/g)24.14±5.26Aa22.75±3.58ABa19.09±2.51Bb
    EC(mg/g)4.03±1.13Bb4.91±0.64Aa4.49±0.85ABab
    GC(mg/g)15.78±2.28Cc19.94±1.31Bb22.82±3.34Aa
    EGC(mg/g)7.55±2.11Bb10.47±2.16Aa10.17±1.64Aa
    ECG(mg/g)20.02±1.73Bb22.54±1.34Aa22.82±1.84Aa
    EGCG(mg/g)52.88±3.79Bb64.65±3.72Aa67.80±5.29Aa
    GCG(mg/g)1.42±0.24ABab1.27±0.13Bb1.52±0.30Aa
    CG(mg/g)0.22±0.03Bb0.19±0.06Bb0.28±0.06Aa
    没食子酸(mg/g)6.46±1.19Bb7.33±0.48Aa7.54±0.87Aa
    鞣花酸(mg/g)0.67±0.16Aa0.65±0.30Aa0.66±0.11Aa
    GG(mg/g)2.17±0.28Aa2.13±0.28Aa2.15±0.19Aa
    芦丁(mg/g)2.67±0.81Bb4.16±1.86Aa3.39±0.97ABab
    花旗松素(mg/g)0.25±0.05Aa0.27±0.04Aa0.24±0.09Aa
    山奈酚(mg/g)0.024±0.003ABab0.027±0.005Aa0.020±0.009Bb
    槲皮素(mg/g)0.009±0.009Bb0.014±0.011ABb0.022±0.006Aa
    杨梅素(mg/g)0.130±0.085Bb0.240±0.100Aa0.140±0.080Bb
    木犀草素(mg/g)0.020±0.005Aa0.016±0.004Ab0.009±0.004Bc
    咖啡碱(mg/g)40.16±3.61Aa40.67±2.16Aa42.28±3.02Aa
    可可碱(mg/g)1.65±0.19Bb1.74±0.16ABab1.84±0.14Aa
    茶碱(mg/g)0.31±0.11Bb0.59±0.29Aa0.34±0.18Bb
    注:同行不同小写字母表示差异显著,P<0.05;同行不同大写字母表示差异极显著,P<0.01。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-21
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-01

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