黑米的营养功能及综合利用研究进展

熊艳珍 黄紫萱 马慧琴 程建峰

熊艳珍,黄紫萱,马慧琴,等. 黑米的营养功能及综合利用研究进展[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(7):408−415. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060018
引用本文: 熊艳珍,黄紫萱,马慧琴,等. 黑米的营养功能及综合利用研究进展[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(7):408−415. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060018
XIONG Yanzhen, HUANG Zixuan, MA Huiqin, et al. Advanceson Nutritional Functions and Comprehensive Utilization of Black (Pericarp) Rice ( Oryza sativa L.)[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(7): 408−415. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060018
Citation: XIONG Yanzhen, HUANG Zixuan, MA Huiqin, et al. Advanceson Nutritional Functions and Comprehensive Utilization of Black (Pericarp) Rice ( Oryza sativa L.)[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(7): 408−415. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060018

黑米的营养功能及综合利用研究进展

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060018
基金项目: 全国大学生创新创业训练计划项目(201910410009)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    熊艳珍(2000−),女,本科,研究方向:农艺学,E-mail:1013590782@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    程建峰(1972−),男,博士,教授,研究方向:植物生理生态,E-mail:chjfkarl@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TS201.1

Advanceson Nutritional Functions and Comprehensive Utilization of Black (Pericarp) Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • 摘要: 黑米是一种在种皮中富集黑色或黑褐色花色苷的稻米,营养丰富,药食兼用,被广泛应用于食品、医药和化工等行业。本文从营养成分(淀粉、蛋白质、脂肪、矿物质、必需氨基酸、维生素、黄酮类、酚酸类和膳食纤维)、功能特性(抗炎症、抗过敏、抗哮喘、抗氧化、抗肿瘤、减肥降脂及降血糖)和综合利用(食品、医药与化工行业)三方面归纳和概述了黑米的研究进展,以期为科学认识和深入研究黑米提供理论依据,为综合利用黑米提供有益借鉴。
  • 表  1  黑米和白米的基本营养成分比较[814]

    Table  1.   Comparison of basic nutritional components between black and white rice[814]

    成分黑米白米
    含量极差含量极差
    淀粉(%)61.80~78.7316.9370.13~86.0915.96
    蛋白质(%)8.50~16.407.906.80~10.874.07
    脂肪(%)2.37~3.901.530.80~2.501.70
    不饱和脂肪酸(%)1.90~3.121.220.55~1.731.18
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  黑米和白米的矿物质含量比较[9,10,1216]

    Table  2.   Comparison of mineral components between black and white rice[9,10,1216]

    矿物质黑米白米
    含量(mg/kg)极差(mg/kg)含量(mg/kg)极差(mg/kg)
    常量元素P1575.0~3626.52051.51071.5~4213.03141.5
    Ca158.4~740.0581.643.7~658.0614.3
    Mg396.7~1100.8704.1324.27~1491.01166.73
    微量元素Fe15.4~111.796.34.9~87.482.5
    Mn21.9~50.428.518.7~29.925.0
    Cu2.2~64.061.82.0~19.917.9
    Zn23.2~57.0733.8716.8~38.822.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  黑米[810,12,1617]和白米[17]及其他谷物的必需氨基酸含量比较(g/kg)

    Table  3.   The contents of essential amino acids for human body between black[810,12,1617], white rice[17] and other grains (g/kg)

    种类蛋氨酸缬氨酸赖氨酸异亮氨酸苯丙氨酸亮氨酸色氨酸苏氨酸总量
    黑米含量1.9~5.95.2~15.83.2~6.22.7~5.34.0~7.66.9~7.21.5~1.92.1~11.732.3~42.2
    极差4.010.63.02.63.60.30.49.69.9
    白米含量1.4~4.84.0~6.42.5~4.62.4~4.23.4~6.46.0~8.21.0~1.22.7~3.623.4~34.2
    极差3.42.42.11.83.02.20.20.910.8
    小麦[1821]1.0~195.8~6.83.5~4.34.5~5.65.5~7.38.6~10.60.2~2.03.5~4.333.4~39.9
    大麦[1922]0.1~2.82.7~8.12.3~8.11.4~6.32.7~9.73.4~12.30.1~1.52.1~5.618.0~22.9
    荞麦[1921, 2324]0.5~1.53.4~7.14.7~7.52.7~5.52.4~6.85.1~8.60.3~1.22.8~4.635.4~40.3
    玉米[1921, 25]1.1~3.72.3~6.21.6~6.93.3~4.03.8~5.97.0~13.80.5~0.83.6~4.630.6~36.5
    小米[1921, 2627]1.2~4.83.1~8.01.0~3.02.8~6.52.8~7.09.5~17.80.6~1.22.4~5.231.7~39.4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  黑米和白米的生物活性成分比较[810,1214,35]

    Table  4.   Comparison of bioactive components between black and white rice[810,1214,35]

    种类黑米白米种类黑米白米
    含量极差含量极差含量极差含量极差
    维生素(mg/kg)胡萝卜素0.76/未检出/黄酮类(%)0.10~1.701.600.02~0.320.30
    B12.10~6.894.793.60/花色苷(mg/kg)0.65~14.9814.33未检出/
    B21.60~2.902.301.04/酚类(mg/g)2.31~4.842.530.13~0.490.30
    C23.93/未检出/膳食纤维(%)0.88~5.004.120.70~4.503.80
    注:“/”表示数据只有一个或未检出,无法算出极差。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-06-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-01-28
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-01

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