As a plant with the function of being medicinal and food,Dioscorea opposita has a long history of eating and is widely planted in China. It is rich in vitamins,amino acid,proteins,minerals,trace elements,saponin,polysaccharides,polyphenols and other nutrients and functional ingredients. It has many health care functions such as regulating intestinal flora,enhancing immunity,preventing tumors,preventing oxidation,lowering blood pressure and lowering blood fat. In this article,research results in recent years were used as a reference. This review introduced the main functional components and physiological mechanisms of polysaccharides,polyphenols,diosgenin and allantoin in Dioscorea opposita. It also provided insights into its in-depth research,in order to provide some theoretical basis for the further development of yam and its functional components.