为研究超高压处理对鳕鱼骨酶解液滋味的影响,以副产物鳕鱼骨为研究对象,采用超高压耦合酶解技术,通过单因素实验和正交试验优化鳕鱼骨高压酶解工艺,探讨超高压耦合酶解对酶解液氨基酸态氮、感官评价、可溶性肽、游离氨基酸等指标的影响。结果表明,在初始pH7.5、150 MPa下加压处理60 min条件下,超高压耦合酶解效果最优,与常压酶解相比,氨基酸态氮的含量达到(0.380±0.04) g/100 mL,提高了1.68倍;感官评价表明,超高压耦合降低了酶解液的腥味、苦味和涩味,增强了酶解液的鲜味,鳕鱼骨酶解液的风味得到改善;超高压耦合酶解液中可溶性肽的含量显著大于常压酶解(p<0.05),是常压酶解液中可溶性肽含量的1.47倍;游离氨基酸总量达到(6240.4±8.1) mg/100 mL,是常压酶解液的1.13倍;谷氨酸的味道强度值(Taste active value,TAV)最大,对酶解液的滋味贡献最大。该方法提高了鳕鱼骨的酶解效率,为水产副产物的综合加工利用提供了理论参考。
In order to investigate the effects of ultra high pressure coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis technology on the taste of hydrolysate in pollock bone, the pollock bone was used as raw material, the optimum enzymatic hydrolysis of pollock bone was studied by ultra high pressure (UHP) treatment coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis technology in this study. The effects of UHP coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis on amino acid nitrogen, sensory evaluation, soluble peptide and free amino acids were determined by single factor and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum condition was pH7.5, pressure 150 MPa, enzymolysis time 60 min. Under these condition, the contents of amino acid nitrogen was (0.380±0.04) g/100 mL and increased by 1.68 times. Sensory evaluation showed that, ultra-high pressure treatment coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis reduced the fishy, bitter and astringent taste of the hydrolysate and enhanced the delicious taste of the hydrolysate, its flavor was improved. The contents of soluble peptide in the hydrolysate of ultra high pressure coupling enzymatic hydrolysis was significantly higher and 1.47 times than that of normal pressure. The total amount of free amino acids was (6240.4±8.1) mg/100 mL and was 1.13 times of the normal pressure hydrolysate. The TAV value of glutamic acid was the largest, which contributed the most to the taste of enzymatic hydrolysis. This method improved the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of pollock bone, and would provide the theoretical reference for comprehensive processing and utilization of aquatic by-products.