热风与冷冻干燥对五种鲜食甜玉米粒品质的影响

姚连谋 张怡 乔勇进 王春芳 刘晨霞 孙大鹏 陈珏

姚连谋,张怡,乔勇进,等. 热风与冷冻干燥对五种鲜食甜玉米粒品质的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(20):61−68. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306-2021010093
引用本文: 姚连谋,张怡,乔勇进,等. 热风与冷冻干燥对五种鲜食甜玉米粒品质的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(20):61−68. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306-2021010093
YAO Lianmou, ZHANG Yi, QIAO Yongjin, et al. Effects of Hot Air and Freeze Drying on the Quality of Five Fresh Sweet Corns Kernels[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(20): 61−68. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306-2021010093
Citation: YAO Lianmou, ZHANG Yi, QIAO Yongjin, et al. Effects of Hot Air and Freeze Drying on the Quality of Five Fresh Sweet Corns Kernels[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(20): 61−68. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306-2021010093

热风与冷冻干燥对五种鲜食甜玉米粒品质的影响

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306-2021010093
基金项目: 上海市鲜食玉米产业技术体系(沪农科产字(2017)第10号);上海市农产品保鲜加工专业技术服务平台(18DZ2291300)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    姚连谋(1995−),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:农产品营养与功能因子研究,E-mail:2420258704@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    乔勇进(1967−),男,博士,研究员,研究方向:农产品保鲜与加工技术研究,E-mail:yjqiao2002@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TS210.1

Effects of Hot Air and Freeze Drying on the Quality of Five Fresh Sweet Corns Kernels

  • 摘要: 目的:探讨热风干燥(Hot Air Drying, HAD)与真空冷冻干燥(Vacuum Freeze Drying, VFD)对鲜食甜玉米品质的影响,以期为鲜食甜玉米采后升值利用提供参考依据。方法:研究HAD和VFD对5个品种鲜食甜玉米粒(荆黑甜、白美人、金银208、美果一号、和粟一号)的水分含量、可溶性蛋白、硬度、脆性、色差、复水比、微观结构的影响。结果:VFD甜玉米粒干制品水分含量低于HAD样品,便于保存;可溶性蛋白高于HAD样品,营养物质损失较少;硬度低于HAD样品,口感较好,脆性低于HAD样品,组织绵软,口感细腻;色泽优于HAD样品,视觉效果较好;复水性远远优于HAD样品,干制品吸水性较强;扫描电子显微镜下VFD甜玉米粒干制品截面呈多孔性的蜂窝状网状结构,微孔分布均匀,HAD样品截面结构层叠紧密,细胞壁坍塌严重。VFD甜玉米粒干制品硬度、脆性与色差与新鲜甜玉米比较接近,且内部空隙较多,品质较好。结论:不同品种鲜食甜玉米粒VFD后存在差异性,适合VFD的甜玉米品种的先后顺序为荆黑甜、和粟一号、白美人、美果一号、金银208。综合来看,荆黑甜、和粟一号较适合VFD,美果一号、金银208较适合HAD。
  • 图  1  干燥方式对鲜食甜玉米硬度和脆性的影响

    Figure  1.  Effect of drying methods on hardness and frangibility of fresh sweet corn

    图  2  干燥方式对鲜食甜玉米粒复水比的影响

    Figure  2.  Effect of drying methods on rehydration ratio of fresh sweet corn kernels

    图  3  干燥方式对鲜食甜玉米粒微观结构的影响

    Figure  3.  Effect of drying methods on microstructure of fresh sweet corn kernels

    注:A、B、C、D、E分别代表荆黑甜、白美人、金银208、美果一号、和粟一号。

    表  1  新鲜甜玉米生长情况及营养成分含量

    Table  1.   Growth and nutrient content of fresh sweet corn

    品种穗长(cm)穗粗(cm)穗重(g)水分含量(%)可溶性糖(%)可溶性蛋白(%)可溶性固形物(%)
    荆黑甜15.93±0.61a4.40±0.17b206.34±22.29ab76.94±0.36b11.21±0.70ab1.12±0.01c13.96±0.04e
    白美人17.20±0.85b4.33±0.15b214.45±18.68ab78.35±0.23c12.26±0.75b0.86±0.09a13.69±0.01d
    金银20815.50±0.20a4.20±0.10ab181.65±20.46a76.85±0.18b9.25±1.74a0.97±0.08b12.12±0.08b
    美果一号18.00±0.92b4.73±0.12c243.52±26.32b76.64±0.43ab9.21±1.54a0.99±0.01b11.79±0.07a
    和粟一号18.33±0.15b4.00±0.10a229.63±17.28ab76.10±0.36a11.17±0.72ab1.10±0.05c13.39±0.01c
    注:结果以平均值±标准差表示。同列肩标小写字母不同表示差异显著(P<0.05),表2~表3同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  干燥方式对鲜食甜玉米水分含量与可溶性蛋白的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of drying methods on moisture content and soluble protein of fresh sweet corn

    品种
    HAD VFD
    水分含量(%)可溶性糖(%)可溶性蛋白(%)水分含量(%)可溶性糖(%)可溶性蛋白(%)
    荆黑甜3.40±0.35a28.47±1.82a1.22±0.03a2.42±0.03c32.68±0.21a2.10±0.08b
    白美人3.45±0.16a40.30±0.71b1.15±0.02a2.00±0.08a48.67±0.90d1.90±0.11a
    金银2083.42±0.13a29.69±1.64a1.28±0.01b2.14±0.03abc40.98±1.35b2.32±0.07c
    美果一号3.49±0.08a38.05±1.71b1.36±0.02c2.08±0.28ab40.78±1.84b2.30±0.08c
    和粟一号3.48±0.11a40.81±1.31b1.29±0.03b2.31±0.16bc44.52±0.16c2.30±0.12c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  干燥方式对鲜食甜玉米色泽的影响(n=3)

    Table  3.   Effect of drying methods on color of fresh sweet corn (n=3)

    品种
    L* a* b* ΔE
    新鲜HADVFD新鲜HADVFD新鲜HADVFDHADVFD
    荆黑甜72.53±0.20a31.09±1.45a77.69±3.93a2.76±0.68a13.38±1.18d2.64±3.72b17.11±0.46b12.96±2.50a17.26±1.15a43.02±1.81c5.85±3.86a
    白美人79.82±0.24b37.96±3.10b86.25±2.14b−1.44±0.24c4.12±0.60a−1.41±0.18a10.13±0.72a14.69±2.08a16.86±1.41a42.51±2.70c9.62±0.76a
    金银20884.11±0.97c35.11±2.59ab84.64±3.48b3.18±0.08c10.33±0.87c3.11±1.79b14.53±0.14b13.510.46a27.95±1.11b49.54±1.83d13.72±1.32b
    美果一号77.96±1.09b56.34±4.14d82.51±1.10ab1.82±0.21b8.90±1.25bc3.68±0.86b28.19±2.15c28.87±1.38b29.09±1.87b22.83±3.64a5.98±1.62a
    和粟一号77.99±2.98b47.04±0.25c82.34±1.55ab2.94±0.71b7.21±1.01b1.52±0.21ab29.72±3.83c26.19±1.89b32.43±1.91c31.77±2.54b6.65±1.89a
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-01
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